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Axial Age

Axial Age is a term invented by German philosopher Karl Jaspers. It refers to ancient history from between 8th to the 3rd century BCE. He says that this represents a turning point in human history. New ways of thinking appeared in Iran, India, Ch ...

                                               

Bard

The bard probably belonged to a social class in Celtic Europe. Bards were poets or singers and were most likely were in the service of Celtic nobility. They were probably employed to tell about how good their master was or to sing about what he d ...

                                               

Belgae

The Belgae were a group of tribes living in northern Gaul. They were on the west bank of the Rhine, in the 3rd century BC. Later they were also in Britain, and possibly even Ireland. They gave their name to the Roman province of Gallia Belgica, a ...

                                               

Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is the time period when people made tools from an alloy called bronze. Bronze is a mixture of mainly copper and tin: usually nine parts copper to one part tin. Materials like wood and stone were also used for tools, but bronze was ...

                                               

Bronze Age collapse

The Bronze Age collapse is so called by historians who study the end of the Bronze Age. The palace economies of the Aegean and Anatolia of the late Bronze Age were replaced, eventually, by the village cultures of the Greek Dark Ages. Between 1200 ...

                                               

Catal Huyuk

Catal Huyuk was a very large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately 7500 BC to 5700 BC. It is the largest and most well preserved Neolithic site found to date. The site is in Turkey: coordinat ...

                                               

Cave painting

Cave paintings are paintings on cave walls and ceilings. Usually these paintings were made in prehistoric times. Most cave paintings date from 10.000 to 20.000 years ago. The oldest are from about 32.000 years ago, but scientists still disagree i ...

                                               

Claw of Archimedes

The Claw of Archimedes was an ancient weapon. It was designed by Archimedes to defend the seaward part of Syracuses city wall against amphibious assault. Although its exact nature is unclear, the accounts of ancient historians seem to describe it ...

                                               

Cradle of civilization

A cradle of civilization is a place where civilization emerged. There was no single "cradle", but several civilizations that developed independently. The Fertile Crescent, Ancient India, and Ancient China were the first. Whether there was influen ...

                                               

Dalmatae

The Dalmatae or Delmatae were an Illyrian tribe. They lived in what is today Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Their capital was Delminium. The Dalmatae were conquered by the Roman Republic in 33 BC.

                                               

Edom

Edom is a name given to Esau, the brother of Jacob, in the Hebrew Bible. It also means the nation that came from him. The nations name in Assyrian was Udumi. In Syriac it was ܐܕܘܡ. In Greek, it was Ἰδουμαία. In Latin, it was Idumæa or Idumea. The ...

                                               

Fertile Crescent

The Fertile Crescent is a historical region in the Middle East that includes the Levant, Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. These countries on a map together have a shape that is similar to a crescent, so archaeologist James Henry Breasted spoke of t ...

                                               

Germanic peoples

The Germanic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples. They came from Northern Europe and are identified by their use of the Germanic languages. Migrating Germanic peoples spread throughout Europe, mixing with existing ...

                                               

Hallstatt culture

The Hallstatt culture is named after Hallstatt, a city in Austria in which the first artifacts were found. It lasted from about 1200 BC to about 275 BC. There were different periods that are now told apart mainly by the kinds of brooches used. Th ...

                                               

Hill fort

A hill fort is an ancient fortified refuge or defended settlement. It was usually in a place that rises from the surrounding area, given the name. This is done to exploit the rise for military advantage. The fortification usually follows the shap ...

                                               

Holocene

The Holocene is the present geological epoch. It is the second epoch of the Quaternary and the seventh of the Cainozoic. It started around 11.000 years ago after the last ice age. We are currently going through a non-ice age warm stage in Earths ...

                                               

Indus Valley civilization

The Indus Valley civilization was a Bronze Age civilization The civilization was in the subcontinent. It was discovered by archaeologists in the 1880s. It developed along the Indus River and the Ghaggar-Hakra River and even that areas are now in ...

                                               

Kalibangan

Kalibangān is a prehistoric site at 29.47°N 74.13°E  / 29.47; 74.13 in Rajasthan. It is on the left or southern banks of the Ghaggar, India. It is on a triangle-shaped piece of land at the confluence of Drishadvati and Sarasvathi Rivers. A repor ...

                                               

La Tene culture

The La Tene culture existed from about 500 BC to about 100 AD. Named after a town in Switzerland near Neuchatel, it was greatly influenced by the Roman and the Greek cultures. There are two sources for this: Things found Romans and Greeks came in ...

                                               

Ancient Libya

                                               

Magan (civlization)

Magan was an ancient nation. It is mentioned in Sumerian cuneiform texts of around 2300 BC. It lasted to 550 BC as a source of copper and diorite for Mesopotamia. Magans exact location is not known. Most of the archeological geological evidence s ...

                                               

Magdalenenberg

Magdalenenberg is the name for a tumulus grave. It dates from the Iron Age. It lies at the southwestern tip of the Black Forest, in Germany. The nobleman who is buried there was part of the Hallstatt culture. With a volume of 33.000 cubic metres ...

                                               

Medes

The Medes were an ancient Arian and iranian people who lived in the northwestern portions of present-day Iran. This area was known in Greek as Media or Medea They entered this region with the first wave of Iranian tribes, in the late second mille ...

                                               

Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia is a historical region in the Middle East. It included most of today’s Iraq, and parts of modern-day Iran, Syria and Turkey. The two rivers of the name referred to the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers. The land was called Al-Jazirah "t ...

                                               

Moab

Moab is the historical name for an area of land in Jordan. The mountainous land covers the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. In ancient times, it was the Kingdom of Moab. There have been many archaeological findings that have helped reconstruct its ...

                                               

Myra

Myra is an ancient town in Lycia. The small town of Kale is situated near it today. It is in Antalya Province of Turkey. It was located on the river Myros, in the fertile alluvial plain between Alaca Dağ, the Massikytos range and the Aegean Sea. ...

                                               

Nok culture

The Nok culture was an ancient civilisation in what is now Nigeria. It appeared around 1000 BC and vanished around 300 CE. This civilisation lived in northern and central Nigeria. Its social system is thought to have been very advanced for its ti ...

                                               

Oracle bone

Oracle Bones were bones that the Chinese would carve or scratch their questions on. Then the priests would burn the oracle bone until it would crack. Then the priest read these cracks to the Chinese people for their answer. The Chinese people bel ...

                                               

Orichalcum

Orichalcum or aurichalcum, ὀρείχαλκος is the name of a metal or two different metals. Old writings from ancient Greece talk about orichalcum and the Romans made coins out of a metal they called orichalcum, but they might not have been the same me ...

                                               

Parthia

Parthia is an ancient country of Asia, now Iran and regions of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria,Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, and ...

                                               

Pleistocene

"The Ice Age" redirects here. For other uses, see Ice Age disambiguation. The Pleistocene stage or epoch was a long period of time. It stretched from 2.6 million years ago to 11.700 years ago. The Pleistocene followed the Pliocene. It is the firs ...

                                               

Rock art

Pictographs – rock and cave paintings Petroglyphs – carvings into stone surfaces In addition, petroforms and inukshuks are rock art made by aligning or piling natural stones. The stones themselves are used as large markings on the ground.

                                               

Sicarii

Sicarii were killers who were a splinter group of the Zealots during the time leading up to the destruction of Jerusalem by the Roman General Titus. Their name derives from a work that means "dagger". They hid in groups of people who supported Ro ...

                                               

Suphan Buri Province

Suphanburi was an ancient province. Researchers found evidence that is over 2500 years old. Artifacts have been found from the Stone Age, Iron Age and successive cultures including the Suwannapoom period, Funan, Aummarawadee and Sriwichai. The ol ...

                                               

Thrace

Thrace is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. It was bounded by the Balkan Mountains on the north, Rhodope Mountains and the Aegean Sea on the south, and by the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara on the east. Thrace included areas ...

                                               

Venus figurines

Possibly among the earliest traces of art are Venus figurines. These are figurines that show women. Most often the women are shown as being pregnant, with breasts well visible. The figurines occur from Western Europeto Siberia. Most are about 30. ...

                                               

Venus of Berekhat Ram

The Venus of Berekhat Ram is a stone that was found on the Golan Heights in 1981. Scientists have proposed to classify it as a Venus figurine, because there are traces it was worked on with a stone tool. The things that have been worked can clear ...

                                               

Venus of Tan-Tan

The Venus of Tan-Tan is a venus figurine. It was found in Morocco. It has been dated to be between 300.000 and 500.000 years old. Unlike the other venus figurines, it appears neither male nor female.

                                               

Archaeology

Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of the human past. It looks at remains and objects left by the people who lived long ago. These remains may include old coins, tools, buildings, and inscriptions. Archaeologists, the people who study archa ...

                                               

Alexander Mosaic

The Alexander Mosaic is a Roman floor mosaic from the House of the Faun in Pompeii. It was made in 100 BC. It shows a battle between the armies of Alexander the Great and Darius III of Persia. It measures 2.72 x 5.13m. The original is at the Napl ...

                                               

Archaeozoology

Archaeozoology is the study of animals in archaeological contexts. Mostly, it studies the remains left behind when an animal dies. These are mostly bones and teeth. Sometimes hair, skin or other body parts are found and can be studied. Archeaozoo ...

                                               

Artifact (archaeology)

For other uses of artifact, including errors, see artifact disambiguation. In archaeology, an artifact or artefact is an object made or modified by a human culture. It is usually found during an archaeological dig. Some artifacts are stone tools, ...

                                               

Beaker culture

The Bell-Beaker culture is the name of a cultural phenomenon which occurred in large parts of Western Europe, roughly between 2800 BC and 2200 BC. Today, it is unclear whether this can be seen as a culture. Paul Reinecke was the first to use the ...

                                               

Black Sea Maritime Archaeology Project

The Black Sea Maritime Archaeology Project is an ongoing research action. Its purpose is to discover, document and deal with archaeological remains found in the Black Sea. The project is run by the University of Southampton and funded by the Expe ...

                                               

Children of Llullaillaco

                                               

Double-headed serpent

The Double-headed serpent looks like two wavy snakes acting as the others tail. Both of the snakes faces have one hole for an eye and a mouth filled with white fangs. It is made of turquoise chips of stone and has a wooden block for its base.

                                               

Egyptology

Egyptology is the study of Ancient Egypt. It falls under both history and archaeology. Someone who studies or works in this field is called an Egyptologist.

                                               

Fibula (brooch)

A Fibula is an ancient brooch. Technically, the latin term fibulae meant Roman brooches, but the term is widely used for brooches from the entire ancient and early medieval world. Unlike modern brooches, fibulae were not only decorative, they ori ...

                                               

Geoglyph

A geoglyph is a large-scale man-made feature on the ground. Usually longer than 4 metres, it is made by placing rocks, stones, live trees, gravel, or earth. A positive geoglyph is formed by the arrangement and alignment of materials on the ground ...

                                               

K–Ar dating

Potassium–Argon dating or K–Ar dating is a radiometric dating method used in geochronology and archaeology. It is based on measurement of the product of the radioactive decay of an isotope of potassium into argon. Potassium is a common element fo ...

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