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Duke of Normandy

The title Duke of Normandy was given to the rulers of the duchy of Normandy. This fief was created in 911 by Charles the Simple King of France for Rollo, a leader of Northmen. In 1066 the seventh duke, William II, became King William I of England ...

                                               

Dunderland (concentration camp)

Dunderland was a Nazi concentration camp in Norway during World War Two. It was located in Dunderlandsdalen in Rana. The prison camp had 481 prisoners in May 1945; The purpose of the camp was for the prisoners to do forced labor on the Nordland L ...

                                               

Dunkirk evacuation

The Dunkirk evacuation sometimes called Operation Dynamo or The Miracle of Dunkirk was a British mission to rescue Allied soldiers from the beaches of Dunkirk France, from 26 May to 4 June 1940. Over 300.000 Allied soldiers were trapped in Dunkir ...

                                               

Durrani Empire

The Durrani Empire was established in 1747 by Ahmad Shah Durrani at Kandahar, Afghanistan. It included the land that is now called Afghanistan, Pakistan, eastern Iran and western India. The Durrani Empire is considered the foundation of the moder ...

                                               

Dutch East Indies

The Dutch East Indies, or Netherlands East Indies, was the Dutch colony that is now modern Indonesia. The main city was Batavia, now called Jakarta. It was made from the colonies of the Dutch East India Company that came under the control of the ...

                                               

Dutch Empire

The Dutch Empire owned several territories that were in control by the Dutch Republic. The Dutch had created colonial empires. These were similar to Portugal and Spain. The Dutch Empire used their skills in shipping and trade with other empires. ...

                                               

East Francia

Eastern Francia was the land of Louis the German after the Treaty of Verdun of 843. That treaty divided Carolingian Empire of the Franks into an East, West, and Middle. Over the centuries it changed into the Holy Roman Empire and modern Germany.U ...

                                               

Eastern Front (World War I)

The Eastern Front of World War I was the theatre in which Germany and Austria-Hungary fought against Russian with more troops than the Western Front but three to five times the length. Planning the places to concentrate forces was very important ...

                                               

Edicts of Ashoka

The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka, as well as on large stones and cave walls, made by the Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty during his reign from 272 to 231 BCE. The edicts describe in detail th ...

                                               

Egoz (ship)

The Egoz was a ship that sank in the Mediterranean Sea on 10 January 1961. It was carrying 44 Jewish emigrants sailing from Morocco. It also carried one Israeli that was deputy of the Israeli government, and two Spanish crew members. Only 22 bodi ...

                                               

First Battle of El Alamein

The First Battle of El Alamein was a battle in the Second World War. It took place in El Alamein, Egypt. It was fought between the Allied forces, and Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. The battle took place from July 1 to July 27 1942. It was part o ...

                                               

Elgin Marbles

The Parthenon Marbles, sometimes called the Elgin Marbles, are a series of ancient Greek sculptures of relief made from marble. They were originally part of the Parthenon temple in Athens but they were taken by Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin in ...

                                               

End SARS

End Special Anti-Robbery Squad or #EndSARS is a social movement in Nigeria that started on Twitter. The movement asked the government to end the Special Anti-Robbery Squad, which is part of the Nigerian Police Force. It supports ending police bru ...

                                               

Endymion

Endymion is a human character in Greek mythology. His story is told by various ancient authors. In most versions he is a shepherd, and a young man of unusual handsomeness – so much so that the Moon goddess Selene falls in love with him. She uses ...

                                               

English free settlers

English free settlers were people that chose to go to New Holland. They were not forced to go there, as the convicts were. The English free settlers went to Australia between the late 18th century and the early 19th century. When the English free ...

                                               

English Reformation

The English Reformation was part of the Protestant Reformation. Many Christian churches in Europe broke away from Rome. Each of the countries that went through this process did so in a different way. Earlier the Roman Catholic Church had supreme ...

                                               

English Restoration

The English Restoration, or simply Restoration, was an episode in the history of England beginning in 1660 when the English monarchy, Scottish monarchy and Irish monarchy were restored under King Charles II after the English Civil War and Interre ...

                                               

Entente cordiale

The Entente cordiale was a number of agreements signed on 8 April 1904 between the United Kingdom and France. Both countries were worried that their growing empires would cause a war between them. The agreement was the end of almost 1000 years of ...

                                               

Ethiopian Empire

The Ethiopian Empire or simply Ethiopia, also known as "Abyssinia" by foreigners, was an old empire. It used to include modern day Ethiopia and Eritrea. When it was biggest, it controlled some parts of Egypt, Sudan, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia. Abyss ...

                                               

Euromaidan

Euromaidan is a period of demonstrations and civil unrest in Ukraine. It began on the night of 21 November 2013 with protests demanding that Ukraine become part of the European Union. On 30 November 2013 riot police attacked protestors, violently ...

                                               

Death of Sarah Everard

On the evening of 3 March 2021, 33-year-old marketing executive Sarah Everard disappeared in South London. She went missing after leaving a friends house near Clapham Common to walk home. On 9 March, Wayne Couzens, a Metropolitan Police officer w ...

                                               

Fall of Constantinople

The fall of Constantinople was when the Ottoman Empire took over Constantinople, the capital city of the Byzantine Empire, on 29 May 1453. The Ottomans were commanded by 21-year-old Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II, who defeated an army commanded by Byza ...

                                               

The Fargo tornado

The Fargo tornado was a deadly F5 tornado that struck Fargo, North Dakota, on Thursday, June 20, 1957. The tornado was part of a larger system of storms that resulted in five separate tornadoes in the immediate region.

                                               

Federal Hall

Federal Hall was the first capitol building of the United States, and was the site where George Washington was inaugurated as Americas first president in 1789. In 1700, it was built on Wall Street and named New York City Hall. It was renamed to F ...

                                               

Federalist No. 55

The Federalist No. 55 is an essay by James Madison. It is the fifty-fifth of a collection called the Federalist Papers. It was published on February 13, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all The Federalist Papers were publish ...

                                               

Final Solution

The Final Solution was a plan made by the Nazi Germany to kill millions of Jews and Gypsies during World War II. On July 31 1941, Nazi leader Hermann Goering ordered the SS to make plans for a "complete solution of the Jewish question." At first ...

                                               

2017 Finsbury Park attack

On 19 June 2017, at 00:15 BST, police officers responded to a vehicle running over several civilians with a reported "numerous casualties" in Finsbury Park, London. The attack occurred near Finsbury Park Mosque where the van ran over several wors ...

                                               

First Boer War

In the 19th Century Scramble for Africa, the British Empire tried to control all of southern Africa. They won control of the Cape of Good Hope in 1815 at the end of the Napoleonic Wars. Many Boers did not like Britain controlling the area. The Br ...

                                               

First inauguration of Barack Obama

Barack Obama was inaugurated as the 44th President of the United States on Tuesday, January 20, 2009. This inauguration was the beginning of the first term of Obama as President and of Joe Biden as Vice President. The oath of office was given by ...

                                               

First inauguration of Ulysses S. Grant

The first inauguration of Ulysses S. Grant as the 18th President of the United States took place on March 4, 1869. The inauguration was the beginning of the first four-year term of Ulysses S. Grant as President and the only term of Schuyler Colfa ...

                                               

First Kashmir War

The India-Pakistan War of 1947-48 is also known as the First Kashmir War. It was fought between the Dominion of India and Dominion of Pakistan over the former Princely state of Kashmir and Jammu from 1947 to 1948. This was the first of four wars ...

                                               

First Punic War

The First Punic War started in 264 BC. It lasted for 23 years, ending in 241 BC. It was the first of three wars fought between ancient Carthage and the Roman Republic. They were rivals for trade and influence in the Mediterranean. For more than 2 ...

                                               

First Triumvirate

The First Triumvirate is the name most historians give to the political alliance between Gaius Julius Caesar, Marcus Licinius Crassus and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus. They made it in 60 BC to give each other power. Each person helped the others to be ...

                                               

Fishburn (ship)

The Fishburn was a store ship in the First Fleet. The First Fleet carried the convicts and soldiers to Australia to start a penal colony. The ships left England in May 1787 and arrived in Australia in January 1788. This was the start of European ...

                                               

Flower power

Flower power was a 1960s slogan, used by hippies and other people who were against war and violence. It was a symbol of passive resistance and non-violence ideology. These people used flowers as a symbol of life, of love, and of peace. They wore ...

                                               

Founding Fathers of the United States

The Founding Fathers refers to certain men who lived during the American Revolutionary War era. These men signed the Declaration of Independence, helped write the Constitution of the United States, or helped win the American Revolutionary War. Ma ...

                                               

French colonial empire

The French colonial Empire was land controlled by the French from the 17th century to the late 1960s. In the 17th and 18th centuries France gained and lost large territories in North America and India. Like the other empires of the time, was powe ...

                                               

French invasion of Russia

The French Invasion of Russia in 1812, also known as the Russian Campaign in France and the Patriotic War of 1812 in Russia, was when Napoleon Bonaparte led the French Empire to invade Russia. It was the turning point during the Napoleonic Wars, ...

                                               

French Revolutionary Wars

The French Revolutionary Wars consisted of conflicts between 1792 and 1802; there was fighting between French Revolutionary government and several European states. French Revolutionary Armies, with revolutionary fervor and military innovations, d ...

                                               

French Wars of Religion

The French Wars of Religion is the name for a total of eight wars fought in France, in the 16th century. The wars opposed Catholics and Protestants. The protestants were also called huguenots. The Catholics won, ending with the St. Bartholomews D ...

                                               

Friendship (ship)

The Friendship was a convict transport ship in the First Fleet. The First Fleet carried convicts and soldiers to Australia to start a penal colony. The ships left England in May 1787 and arrived in Australia in January, 1788. This was the start o ...

                                               

Frontiersman

Frontiersmen and frontierswomen were/are people living on the frontier between settled and unsettled lands. The frontier was a place between civilization and the unknown wilderness. Frontiersmen often cleared the land, built shelters, raised chil ...

                                               

Fuhrer

Fuhrer is the German word for leader. The word Fuhrer is most often used to name Adolf Hitler. Hitler was the German Chancellor during the Third Reich. The dictator Adolf Hitler used the word Fuhrer for his title Fuhrer and Reichskanzler of the T ...

                                               

Fuhrerbunker

The Fuhrerbunker was under Hitlers New Reich Chancellery in Berlin, Germany. It was in this subterranean bunker where Adolf Hitler and his wife Eva Braun spent the last weeks of the war. Both are believed to have died there on April 30, 1945. The ...

                                               

Gallia Belgica

Gallia Belgica, which means "Belgian Gaul" in Latin, was a Roman province. Different parts of it are in several countries today, including Belgium, Luxembourg, a big part of northern France, and part of the Rhineland in Germany, which is the part ...

                                               

Gallipoli Campaign

The Gallipoli Campaign was an Allied attack on the Gallipoli peninsula during World War I. The campaign took place between April 25, 1915 and January 9, 1916. The Allies, the British Empire and French forces, were fighting the Ottoman Empire. The ...

                                               

Battle of Gemmano

The Battle of Gemmano was a battle fought between the German and Allied forces in World War II. It was part of the Allies Operation Olive, the attack in August 1944 on the Gothic Line. This was the German line of defence in the Apennines in north ...

                                               

General Order No. 11 (1863)

General Order No. 11 is the name of a Union Army order given on August 25, 1863 during the American Civil War. It forced people from rural areas in four counties in western Missouri to leave. The order, given by Union General Thomas Ewing, Jr., a ...

                                               

German Confederation

The German Confederation replaced the Holy Roman Empire in Central Europe. After the Holy Roman Empire fell, Germany had fallen into over 300 different small kingdoms. In 1815, the Congress of Vienna decided that these weak kingdoms were not stro ...

                                               

German Empire

The German Empire is the name for a group of German countries from January 18, 1871 to November 9, 1918. This is from the Unification of Germany when Wilhelm I of Prussia was made German Kaiser to when the third Emperor Wilhelm II was removed fro ...

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