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Razakars (Hyderabad)

Razakars were private militia organized by Qasim Razvi which supporter the rule of Osman Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VII and resist the integration of Hyderabad State into India. Eventually, the Indian army routed the Razakars and the group was disbanded ...

                                               

Razakars (Pakistan)

Razakars was the name given to a paramilitary force organized by the Pakistan Army during the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. The word, originating from Persian, literally means "volunteer". It was composed of mostly pro-Pakistani Bengalis and ...

                                               

Reagan Doctrine

The Reagan Doctrine was a document by the United States under the Reagan Administration. It was about being against the global influence of the Soviet Union during the final years of the Cold War. The doctrine lasted for less than a decade, it wa ...

                                               

Reconquista

The Reconquista was a period of 800 years in the Middle Ages during which the several Christian kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula expanded themselves by fighting the Muslim states of al-Andalus, the Muslim states on the Iberian Peninsula, and pus ...

                                               

Red River Rebellion

The Red River Rebellion was an uprising by the Metis people in modern Manitoba. The national government of Canada bought the area, then known as "Ruperts Land", from the Hudsons Bay Company in 1869. The government then ordered surveys to be start ...

                                               

Red scare

                                               

Regency era

The Regency era was nine years from 1811 to 1820 in Great Britain. It was the time when the future George IV of the United Kingdom was Prince Regent during the long illness of his father, George III. George IV was crowned after George IIIs death ...

                                               

Reichsmark

The Reichsmark was the currency in Germany from 1924 until June 20, 1948. One Reichsmark was subdivided into 100 Reichspfennig.

                                               

Reichsminister

Reichsministers were some of the members of the German parliament, the Reichstag, between 1919 and 1945. They were leaders of government ministries. During the German Empire, there were no Reichsministers.

                                               

Reichssicherheitshauptamt

The RSHA, or Reichssicherheitshauptamt was an organization headed by Heinrich Himmler. This was in his dual capacities as Chef der Deutschen Polizei and Reichsfuhrer-SS. The organizations stated duty was to fight all "enemies of the Reich" inside ...

                                               

Reichstag (institution)

The Reichstag was the German parliament during the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, the German Empire, the Weimar Republic and the Third Reich until 1945. They met in the Reichstag building from 1894 to 1933. The Reichstag is no ...

                                               

Removal of Martin Vizcarra

The impeachment of Martin Vizcarra, the 85th President of Peru, began when the Congress of Peru started the process on 8 October 2020 because of Vizcarras "permanent moral incapacity". On October 20, 2020, political factions Union for Peru, Podem ...

                                               

Reorganized National Government of China

The Reorganized National Government of China, also known as the Wang Jingwei regime was a puppet government in China. It was led by Wang Jingwei, under the protection of the Empire of Japan. The regime ended in 1945, at the end of World War II.

                                               

Republic of Ezo

Republic of Ezo, was a short-lived state in 1869 in the area that is now Hokkaido, Japan. It was established by former Tokugawa shogunate retainers. It was against the new imperial government. It was later defeated by Imperial forces.

                                               

Retro

Retro is a term used to describe fashions, trends and other cultural items that were popular or relevant many years ago. Generally, something that is retro is at least of fifteen or twenty years of age. For example, a video game from 1997 could b ...

                                               

Revolutions of 1848

The European Revolutions of 1848 were a series of revolts in Europe. In some places they are called Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution. These revolutions started in January with a Palermo republican uprising. The larger French Revolution ...

                                               

Reykjavik Summit

The Reykjavik Summit was a meeting between U.S. President Ronald Reagan and General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev. It was held in Hofdi in Reykjavik, the capital city of Iceland, on October 11–12, 1986. Th ...

                                               

Rhodesia

Rhodesia, officially from 1970 the Republic of Rhodesia, was a republic in Southern Africa during the Cold War. It was the region that is now called Zimbabwe. The country replaced the British colony of Southern Rhodesia.

                                               

Joachim von Ribbentrop

Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim von Ribbentrop was the foreign minister of Germany from 1938 to 1945. He was executed by hanging for war crimes after the Nuremberg trials. Drom 1936 to 1938, before the Second World War, he had been the ambassado ...

                                               

Righteous Among the Nations

Righteous Among the Nations is an award given by Israel to people who risked their own lives to help Jewish people survive the Holocaust. It has been given to Oskar Schindler and Corrie ten Boom and many others for helping the innocent victims of ...

                                               

Ringfort

A ring fort is a fortified settlement. Ring forts were made to protect villages, mostly in the Middle Ages. In Ireland where many such forts can be found, they are also known as rath, caiseal, cathair and dun in the early Irish sources. A rath an ...

                                               

Rivonia Trial

The Rivonia Trial was a trial that took place in South Africa between 1963 and 1964. Ten leaders of the African National Congress were tried for 221 acts of sabotage designed to overthrow the apartheid system. This trial was held after the police ...

                                               

RMS Empress of Ireland

The RMS Empress of Ireland was a Canadian ocean liner. It sank in the Saint Lawrence River after an accident with the Norwegian ship SS Storstad on 29 May 1914. Of the 1.477 people on the Empress, 1.012 died. The ship was launched in 1906. It had ...

                                               

Rodrigo

Rodrigo was the Visigothic King of Hispania for a brief period between 710 and 712. He is famous in legend as "the last king of the Goths." In history he actually is an extremely obscure figure about whom little can be said with certainty but tha ...

                                               

Rok Runestone

The Rok Runestone is a runestone. It has an inscription of about 760 runes, which is the longest known runic inscription in stone. It is on display at the church of Rok, a small village in the south of Sweden. It is considered the first piece of ...

                                               

Roman temple

Roman temples were an important part of Romes history. They had many types of columns all around their exterior. They were used for religious ceremonies or to honor the deceased.

                                               

Romania in World War II

During World War II, Romania started on Britains side. Romania then signed a pact with Adolf Hitler and Germany and joined the German sides. They became allies with Germany.

                                               

Romanian War of Independence

The Romanian War of Independence was battled in 1877. It was against the Ottoman Empire. On April 16 1877, Romania and the Russian Empire signed a treaty that allowed Russian troops to pass through Romanian land, so long as the Russians respected ...

                                               

Romantic poetry

Romantic Poetry was one branch of the Romantic movement. The first generation of Romantic poets were primarily Coleridge, William Blake and Wordsworth. The second generation was at its culmination in the 1820s, with poets such as Shelley, Byron a ...

                                               

Ronald Reagan 1980 presidential campaign

Ronald Reagan, the 33rd Governor of California, announced his candidacy for President of the United States in New York City on November 13, 1979. On July 17, 1980, he became the nominee of the Republican Party for the 1980 presidential election. ...

                                               

Ronald Reagan Speaks Out Against Socialized Medicine

Ronald Reagan Speaks Out Against Socialized Medicine is a 1961 LP featuring Ronald Reagan. It is a ten-minute recording. In the recording, Reagan criticized Social Security for supplanting private savings" and warned that medicine would be "bad f ...

                                               

Roosevelt Corollary

The Roosevelt Corollary was an addition to the Monroe Doctrine articulated by President Theodore Roosevelt in his State of the Union address in 1904 after the Venezuela Crisis of 1902–03.

                                               

Alfred Rosenberg

Alfred Ernst Rosenberg was a German political philosopher from Baltic German origin. He was an intellectual member of the NSDAP, and also a member of the Cabinet Hitler. He was one of the major developers of the racist theories of the Nazis. His ...

                                               

Round city of Baghdad

the Round city of Baghdad was an ancient city in Baghdad, Iraq that was built in 762–767 CE. Today there are only a few remains of the ancient city of Al Mansur.

                                               

Roundheads

The Roundheads were a group of people who supported Parliament & Oliver Cromwell during the English Civil War. They were also called Parliamentarians. They fought against Charles I and the Cavaliers otherwise known as Royalists. The Parliamentary ...

                                               

Royal Alcazar of Madrid

The Royal Alcazar of Madrid was a former royal residence. It was originally built as a fortress by Muslims between 850 and 856 AD. It was in the center of Madrid and served as the center of the Spanish royal court. This was up to the construction ...

                                               

Royal house

A royal house or royal dynasty is a family title, or family name of sorts. It is used by royalty. It usually means the members of a family in old and young people, who are loosely related. Unlike most western people, a great number of the worlds ...

                                               

Royal Irish Constabulary

The Royal Irish Constabulary was the police force of Ireland when it was part of the United Kingdom. It was made by legislation, which was sponsored by Sir Robert Peel in 1814. It was given its name by Queen Victoria for its loyalty during an Iri ...

                                               

Royal Proclamation of 1763

The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7, 1763, by King George III after Great Britain gained French territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War/Seven Years War. The purpose of the Proclamation was to organize ...

                                               

Ruanda-Urundi

Ruanda-Urundi was a part of German East Africa. Belgian troops invaded during World War I. The military occupation lasted from 1916 to 1924 when the territory came under Belgian rule. In 1964 it became the independent states of Rwanda and Burundi.

                                               

Rump Parliament

The Rump Parliament was the name given to Parliament until 1660 of the English Parliament that followed the Long Parliament, after Prides Purge of December 6 1648 had removed those Members of Parliament that were against the plan to try King Char ...

                                               

Ruperts Land

Ruperts Land is a historical territory. Most of it is in Canada today, but some is in the United States. Originally, the Hudson’s Bay Company owned it. It is named after Prince Rupert of the Rhine. who was the first head of the company. Charles I ...

                                               

Russalka

The Russian vessel Russalka was built in St. Petersburg in 1867. It was 62 meters long and armed with six cannons. The crew consisted of 178 sailors. On September 7, 1893, the ship entered a fateful course to Helsinki and sank in the Gulf of Finl ...

                                               

Russian Armenia

Russian Armenia is the time of Armenias history under Russian rule from 1829, when Eastern Armenia became part of the Russian Empire to the start of the Democratic Republic of Armenia in 1918.

                                               

Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)

The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 had its origins in a rise in nationalism in the Balkans as well as in the Russian goal of recovering territorial losses it had suffered during the Crimean War.

                                               

Bernhard Rust

Bernhard Rust the German minister of education, science and national culture, between 1934 and 1945. He was also a member of the Hitler Cabinet during the Third Reich.

                                               

Rustamid

The Rustamid ruled part of North Africa in the from the 700s to 909. It was a Muslim theocracy. The capital was Tahert. It was in present-day Algeria. The group had a Persian origin. No one knows how big their land was but it went as far east as ...

                                               

Ryukyu Kingdom

The Ryukyu Kingdom is a country that no longer exists in present-day Okinawa. Before Japan took control of it during the Meiji Era, it was an independent country with its own culture, government, and language. Okinawa was a major trading center i ...

                                               

Ryutin Affair

The Ryutin Affair began in the summer of 1932 in the Soviet Union. Martemyan Ryutin was a right-wing communist. He wrote a 200 page document called the "Ryutin platform". In it he criticized Joseph Stalins leadership of the communist party. Twelv ...

                                               

Saar Offensive

The Saar Offensive was a French ground offensive into Saarland during World War II. It was done from 7 to 16 September 1939. This area of Saarland was defended by the German 1st Army. The purpose of the attack was to help Poland, which was under ...

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