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Thermodynamic entropy

Thermodynamic entropy is a measure of how organized or disorganized energy is present in a system of atoms or molecules. It is measured in joules of energy per unit kelvin. Entropy is an important part of the third law of thermodynamics. Imagine ...

                                               

Thermodynamic potential

In thermodynamics, thermodynamic potentials are parameters associated with a thermodynamic system and have the dimensions of energy. They are called "potentials" because in a sense, they describe the amount of potential energy in a thermodynamic ...

                                               

Thermodynamic state

A thermodynamic state is the macroscopic condition of a thermodynamic system as described by its particular thermodynamic parameters. The state of any thermodynamic system can be described by a set of thermodynamic parameters, such as temperature ...

                                               

Third law of thermodynamics

The third law of thermodynamics says: If an object reaches the absolute zero of temperature 0 K = −273.15C = −459.67 °F, its atoms will stop moving. The definition is: at absolute zero, the entropy of a perfectly crystalline substance is zero. Ex ...

                                               

Vapor pressure

Vapor pressure is the pressure applied by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases at a given temperature in a closed system. The vapor pressure shows how fast a liquid evaporates. A substance with a high vapor pressure at n ...

                                               

Water vapor

Water vapor is water that is in the form of a vapor, or gas. It is a part of the water cycle. When liquid water is heated to boiling point, 100 degrees Celsius, it turns into vapor. Water vapor can also be produced directly from ice; this is call ...

                                               

Work (thermodynamics)

In thermodynamics, work transfer is an energy transfer in which temperature is not considered during energy transfer. Unit is always in Joules. It is also a result of force acting through the distance. W=FxD

                                               

Zeroth law of thermodynamics

The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics says that if a change to the temperature from one object changes the temperature of another object, and a change to the temperature of B changes the temperature of C, then a change to the temperature of A will mea ...

                                               

Black Death

The Black Death was an outbreak of disease that killed millions of people across Europe and Asia. Most people think that the disease was the bubonic plague. Around 50 million people were killed by the bubonic plague, and was at its worst between ...

                                               

Bloodletting

Blood donation is about donating blood; it does not affect the health of the person donating. Bloodletting is the practice of withdrawing blood from a patient to cure a disease. The practice was widely used in Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Peopl ...

                                               

Cholera

Cholera is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. It infects the small intestine. There are many types strains of the Vibrio cholera bacteria. Some of them cause more serious illnesses than others. Because of this, some pe ...

                                               

Ebers papyrus

The Ebers Papyrus is an ancient Egyptian medical treatise. It covers both practical and magical advice. There are over 700 different drugs described in the papyrus. Some are useful such as opium for pain. Other things in the papyrus can seem ridi ...

                                               

Hippocrates

Hippocrates was a Greek doctor who is called the "father of medicine". He was the first person to teach that people got sick for scientific reasons. Previously, people believed that disease was caused by angry gods. Many of Hippocrates writings a ...

                                               

Plague doctor costume

The plague doctors costume was the clothes worn by a plague doctor to protect him from diseases spread through the air. The costume was made up of a coat which went down to the ankles and a mask. The mask looked like a birds beak. The beak was of ...

                                               

Quarantine

Quarantine is where animals, people or an area of land are isolated to prevent the spread of disease or pests. Countries often stop animals and plants from being brought in from elsewhere, unless they are known not to carry a disease.

                                               

James Young Simpson

James Young Simpson was a qualified doctor by the age of 21 but changed to work as a clerk, due to his traumatic reaction to witnessing mastectomies during his medical training. He sat in several lecture courses as a student, but the anatomical l ...

                                               

Simplified molecular input line entry specification

The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a line notation for the chemical structure of molecules. It uses a short series ASCII characters to represent structures. Most molecule editor computer programs can draw a two-d ...

                                               

Wiswesser Line Notation

Wiswesser Line Notation, also referred to as WLN, was the first line notation that precisely describes complex molecules. The notation is simple, so that trained chemists as well as computers can translate it. It was invented by William J. Wiswes ...

                                               

Brownfield land

Brownfield sites are abandoned or not very used industrial and business places available for re-use. Expansion or redevelopment of such a facility may be difficult by real or possible environmental contaminations. In the United States city planni ...

                                               

Concentric zone model

The Concentric zone model, or Burgess model is a model to explain how a settlement, such as a city, will grow. It was developed by Ernest W. Burgess between 1925 and 1929. Burgess looked at the growth of Chicago in the late 19th and early 20th ce ...

                                               

Exclusionary zoning

Exclusionary zoning is the use of zoning laws to exclude certain types of people from a community. Exclusionary zoning laws began to be used in the United States in the late 19th century. Exclusionary zoning rules are still used today across the ...

                                               

Geddes Plan for Tel Aviv

The Geddes Plan for Tel Aviv was the first master city plan for Tel Aviv. It was designed in 1925-1929 by the Scottish city planner Sir Patrick Geddes. This program designed the center of Tel Aviv and the area now known as "Old North". In 1925 Pa ...

                                               

International Urban Design Conference

The International Urban Design Conference is a international event that held in Melbourne, Australia in every year from 2007 dedicated to urban design. it is the first conference in the world about this subject.

                                               

Linear city model

Linear city is a model in modern urban planning. It was first developed by the Spanish urban planner Arturo Soria y Mata in 1882. It was an alternative to densely populated industrial cities. The idea was resumed in the 20th century in Soviet Ger ...

                                               

Metropolis

A metropolis is a word that means a very big city, that usually has over 500.000 people living in it. A metropolis often has many smaller towns and cities inside its area. The word is very old and began in Greece. In a broader sense, it refers to ...

                                               

Moscow Urban Forum

Moscow International Urban Forum is an international event that is held in Moscow, Russia every year. It has been held since 2011. It talks about globalization.

                                               

Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation

The Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation, also known as Amdavad Municipal Corporation, is a government organization which manages the civic infrastructure and administration of the city of Ahmedabad. AMC was established in July 1950 under the Bombay P ...

                                               

Municipal corporation

A municipal corporation is a term used by the local government. An incorporated town is able to create its own laws. These laws are in addition to the laws of the country, province, or state where the town is located. Municipal corporation happen ...

                                               

National Building Museum

The National Building Museum is a museum in Washington D.C. dedicated to architecture, landscaping, urban design, urban planning, industrial design, and the history of buildings in the United States. The museum host exhibitions of architectural s ...

                                               

Algebra

Algebra is a part of mathematics. It uses variables to represent a value that is not yet known. When an equals sign is used, this is called an equation. A very simple equation using a variable is: 2 + 3 = x. In this example, x = 5, or it could al ...

                                               

Abelian group

An abelian group is a set, A, together with an operation ". It combines any two elements a and b to form another element denoted a b. For the group to be abelian, the operation and the elements A, must follow some requirements. These are known as ...

                                               

Abstract algebra

Abstract algebra is a part of math which studies algebraic structures. These include: algebras vector spaces rings fields Boolean algebra groups It is normal to build a theory on one kind of structure, like group theory or category theory. The pu ...

                                               

Algebraic fraction

An algebraic fraction is a fraction where the top and the bottom are algebraic expressions. Two examples of algebraic fractions are 3 x 2 + 2 x − 3 {\displaystyle {\frac {3x}{x^{2}+2x-3}}} and x + 2 x 2 − 3 {\displaystyle {\frac {\sqrt {x+2}}{x^{ ...

                                               

Algebraic solution

An algebraic solution is an algebraic expression which is the solution of an algebraic equation in terms of the coefficients of the variables. It is found only by addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and the extraction of roots. The m ...

                                               

Algebraic structure

In mathematics an algebraic structure is a set with one, two or more binary operations on it. The basic algebraic structures with one binary operation are the following: Magma mathematics A set with a binary operation. Semigroup A set with an ope ...

                                               

Bijective function

In mathematics, a bijective function or bijection is a function f: A → B that is both an injection and a surjection. This is equivalent to the following statement: for every element b in the codomain B, there is exactly one element a in the domai ...

                                               

Coefficient

In mathematics, a coefficient is a constant multiplicative factor of a certain object. For example, the coefficient in 9x 2 is 9. A coefficient can also be a variable such as a {\displaystyle a}, b {\displaystyle b} and c {\displaystyle c}. The o ...

                                               

Complex plane

In algebra and calculus, the complex plane is used to help visualize complex numbers. The vertical line is called the imaginary axis, and the horizontal line is called the real axis. Any complex number can be written as a+bi, where a and b are re ...

                                               

Constant function

In mathematics, a constant function is a function whose output value is the same for every input value. For example, the function y = 4 {\displaystyle y=4} is a constant function because the value of y {\displaystyle y} is 4 regardless of the inp ...

                                               

Dimension

Dimensions are the way we see, measure and experience our world, by using up and down, right to left, back to front, hot and cold, how heavy and how long, as well as more advanced concepts from mathematics and physics. One way to define a dimensi ...

                                               

Distributive property

Distribution is a concept from algebra: It tells how binary operations are to be handled. The most simple case is that of addition and multiplication of numbers. For example, in arithmetic: 2 ⋅ 1 + 3 = 2 ⋅ 1 + 2 ⋅ 3, but 2 / 1 + 3 ≠ 2 / 1 + 2 / 3 ...

                                               

Elementary algebra

Elementary algebra is the most basic form of algebra taught to students. It is often one of the next areas of mathematics taught to students after arithmetic. While in arithmetic only numbers and operators like +, −, ×, and ÷ occur; in algebra, v ...

                                               

Factorization

Factorization is taking a composite number apart into numbers that multiply together to get the original number. These smaller numbers are called factors or divisors. 1 is a factor of all numbers. Prime factorization is breaking apart a composite ...

                                               

Gram-Schmidt process

The Gram-Schmidt process is a way of converting one set of vectors that forms a basis into another, more friendly one. Suppose we have a set of vectors { v 1., v n } {\displaystyle \{v_{1}.,v_{n}\}} that form a basis for R n {\displaystyle R^{n}} ...

                                               

Group (mathematics)

This article is about the basic notions. For advanced topics, see Group theory. In mathematics, a group is a kind of algebraic structure. A group has a set and an operation. The groups operation can put together any two elements of the groups set ...

                                               

Homology (mathematics)

In mathematics, homology is a certain procedure to associate a sequence of abelian groups or modules with a mathematical object, such as a topological space or a group. The word homology has the Ancient Greek root homos, which means identical. Fo ...

                                               

Injective function

In mathematics, a injective function is a function f: A → B with the following property. For every element b in the codomain B, there is at most one element a in the domain A such that f = b, or equivalently, distinct elements in the domain map t ...

                                               

Inverse element

The inverse element is the opposite of a number or equation. The inverses of x {\displaystyle x} in addition is − x {\displaystyle -x}, and 1 x {\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{x}}} or x − 1 {\displaystyle x^{-1}} in multiplication. In general, given a ...

                                               

Isomorphism

In mathematics, two mathematical structures are isomorphic when they are the same in some sense. More specifically, an isomorphism is a function between two structures that preserves the relationships between the parts. To indicate isomorphism be ...

                                               

Linear function

In basic mathematics, a linear function is a function whose graph is a straight line in 2-dimensions. An example is: y =2 x –1. In higher mathematics, a linear function often refers to a linear mapping.