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Diminutive

Diminutives are common in most dialects of English. Terms such as "undies" for underwear and "movie" for "moving picture" are frequently heard terms in English. Common diminutives are: -let: piglet, chicklet, applet, eyelet, gauntlet, tablet -ey/ ...

                                               

Discourse analysis

Discourse analysis is a subject which studies a text or a conversation. This is a subject in linguistics which does not study sentences, like in syntax, but the entire text or conversation. The text or conversation is known as discourse. Discours ...

                                               

Dynamic and formal equivalence

Dynamic and formal equivalence are concepts from linguistics. When a language is translated into another one, there is a problem: the meaning of a word or a phrase in the first language is not the same as that of the word or phrase in the second ...

                                               

Epenthesis

Epenthesis is a term in phonology. It refers to adding one or more sounds to a word. If it is added at the beginning, it is called prothesis. If added at the end of the word, it is called paragoge. There are two types of epenthesis: when a conson ...

                                               

Ergative-absolutive language

Ergative-absolutive languages, sometimes called ergative languages, are languages where the subject of an intransitive verb and the object of a transitive verb behave the same way in a sentence. Both behave differently to the subject of a transit ...

                                               

Flesch Reading Ease

The FRES test works by counting the number of words, syllables, and sentences in the text. It then calculates the average number of words per sentence and the average number of syllables per word. The idea is that shorter words and shorter senten ...

                                               

Glossolalia

Glossolalia, or speaking in tongues, is speaking rapid speech-like syllables which cannot be understood. In some cases it is part of religious practice. Some consider it as a part of a sacred language. It is a common practice amongst Pentecostal ...

                                               

Grammatical number

Grammatical number is the way numbers and counting are fitted into sentences. Most languages have ways to express differences of number. That apple on the table is fresh. Those two apples on the table are fresh. Common categories of grammatical n ...

                                               

Hapax legomenon

A hapax legomenon is a word that is only occurs once in a corpus of text. The plural is either hapax legomena, or hapaxes. The word comes from Ancient Greek, and means only said once. In this context, a word that occurs twice is called dis legome ...

                                               

Historical linguistics

Historical linguistics is the study of language change. It has five main concerns: to study the history of words, etymology. to develop theories about how and why language changes to discover the pre-history of languages, and group them into lang ...

                                               

Interpreter

An interpreter is a person who translates speech in different languages, usually at conferences or other meetings. Also, an interpreter is someone who will translate and communicate with people who find normal speech difficult. usually interprete ...

                                               

Intonation (linguistics)

In linguistics, intonation is variation of pitch while speaking which is not used to distinguish words. Intonation and stress are two main elements of linguistic prosody. All languages use pitch semantically, that is, as intonation, for instance ...

                                               

Inversion (linguistics)

In linguistics, inversion is when the words in a sentence are in a different order than normal. The most common kind of inversion in English is subject–auxiliary inversion, which happens when an auxiliary verb changes places with its subject. It ...

                                               

Language reform

Language reform is a type of language planning. Language reforms make big changes to a language. These changes are usually done to make a language simpler to understand or to write. Sometimes changes are done to make the language purer; that is, ...

                                               

Lemma (linguistics)

A lemma is a word that stands at the head of a definition in a dictionary. All the head words in a dictionary are lemmas. Technically, it is "a base word and its inflections". A lemma is the word you find in the dictionary. A lexeme is a unit of ...

                                               

Linguistic reduction

Linguistic reductions are lost sounds in words, which happens in spoken English. For instance, "going to" changes to "gonna". The most common reductions are contractions. Most contractions are reductions of not. For instance, "cannot" becomes "ca ...

                                               

Meaning

Meaning is a term in linguistics and philosophy. It is also a word in everyday life. The basic idea is this: meaning is the information which is sent by speech or messages. What that information is can be inferred by a listener or reader. Meaning ...

                                               

Mikroglottika

Mikroglottika - An International Journal of Minority Languages Philologies, is a language scientific magazine about minority languages. The word Mikroglottika means minority language studies. It encourages studies about minority languages philolo ...

                                               

Multilingualism

Multilingualism is the ability to speak more than one language. The ability to speak two languages is "bilingualism," a type of multilingualism. Many immigrants are bilingual and speak languages of both their old and their new country. Multilingu ...

                                               

Nostratic

Nostratic is a hypothetical language family which includes many of the present-day language families of Eurasia. The idea is that Nostratic was spoken after the ice sheets melted but before people spread out throughout Europe and Asia. Many of to ...

                                               

Open class

An open class of words is a part of speech that can easily add new words. A closed class of words, on the other hand, cannot add new words easily. For example, since pronouns are a closed class, there are fairly few pronouns: I, me, my, mine, mys ...

                                               

Palindrome

A palindrome is a word, sentence, or number that reads the same from left to right as from right to left. Punctuation does not matter, but letters and digits do. All alphabetic languages have palindromes. The first palindrome was the Latin Sator ...

                                               

Phonetics

Phonetics is the science of the sounds of human speech. Someone who is an expert in phonetics is called a phonetician. Phonetic theory regards the nature of sounds in speech called phones and how they are made, heard and thought of. Phonology, wh ...

                                               

Possessive case

A possessive case is a word or form used to show possession in linguistics. For example, "Rays bike" means he owns it. Most European languages have possessive forms of personal pronouns, like the English my, mine, your, yours, his and so on. Ther ...

                                               

Pragmatics

Pragmatics is the study of meaning in language in a particular context. This includes the place where the thing is said, who says it, and the things that you have already said. Also, pragmatics studies how people speak when they both know somethi ...

                                               

Question

A question is what someone asks, usually when there is something that he or she does not know. In writing, a question mark comes at the end of a question. However, just because a question is asked does not mean there is an answer.

                                               

R-dropping

R-dropping happens to English-speakers when the "r" sound is not pronounced after a vowel. Then the words "car" and "card" both sound like "cah" and "cahd". That happens for most speakers in England and some speakers in the United States, especia ...

                                               

Readability

Readability, or textual difficulty, means how easy or hard a text is to read. Research has shown that two main factors affect the ease with which texts are read. How difficult the words are: this is lexical difficulty. Rare words are less well kn ...

                                               

Reborrowing

Reborrowing is when words of a certain language are borrowed into a different language, when the new language creates new words using the loanwords or roots they borrowed, and either when the newly created words are introduced to the language tha ...

                                               

Regional language

A regional language is a language spoken in an area that is part of a larger nation state. Internationally, the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, "regional or minority languages" means languages that are: traditionally used wit ...

                                               

Root (linguistics)

The root in language is either a base word, or a part of a word to which affixes are added. Or, it is the part left after affixes have been taken away. Technically, it is the smallest unit which carries meaning: it cannot be reduced into smaller ...

                                               

Semantics

Semantics is the study of meaning. Meaning in this case refers to the relation between signifiers and what they stand for. Signifiers are words, signs and symbols. The word semantics was first used by a French man named Michel Breal. He studied t ...

                                               

Semivowel

Semivowels are consonants that almost sound like vowels. In English, the semivowels are written as W and Y. In Latin, even though semivowels are phonemes, or unique sounds, they have no special letters used to write them. The letters V and I were ...

                                               

Sociolinguistics

Sociolinguistics is the study of how language is related to society. It also studies how people affect language usage. Sociolinguistics studies how variety in language changes between groups of people because of things such as race, gender, statu ...

                                               

Sound change

A sound change in a language is when the sounds of the language become different overtime. Since people of different languages or dialects often talk to each other, the way people talk becomes more like the way the others talk. Because of this, i ...

                                               

Spanglish (language)

Spanglish is a hybrid American language that mixes words and other ways of saying things from Spanish and English. It is mostly spoken in the United States.

                                               

Sprachbund

A sprachbund is a group of languages spoken in the same area. They become similar because the speakers live close to each other. They constantly communicate with each other. Because similarities in the languages develop, they sometimes seem to be ...

                                               

Sun and moon letters

In Arabic and Maltese, consonants are divided into two groups: the sun/solar letters and moon/lunar letters. In those languages, all nouns start with the word "al" الـ in Arabic or "il" in Maltese. Both words mean "the." If a sun letter comes aft ...

                                               

Text grammar

A text grammar is the study of texts above the level of the sentence. It shows how texts are put together so as to convey ideas, facts, messages, and fiction. A similar term is discourse analysis. Both are mostly concerned with natural language u ...

                                               

Tongue-twister

A tongue-twister is a phrase that is hard to say. They often use alliteration and homophones. They are commonly employed to help warm up singers and actors

                                               

Vowel

A vowel is a particular kind of speech sound made by changing the shape of the upper vocal tract, or the area in the mouth above the tongue. In English it is important to know that there is a difference between a vowel sound and a. In English the ...

                                               

Vowel length

Vowel length is a feature in languages when how long a vowel is spoken in a word can create a completely different word. Although this is a feature in many languages like Japanese, Arabic, Hawaiian, Classical Latin, and Thai, there are also many ...

                                               

Wikitongues

Wikitongues is an American non-profit organization registered in New York. Its goal is to document all the languages in the world. It was founded by Frederico Andrade, Daniel Bogre Udell and Lindie Botes in 2014.

                                               

A Sound of Thunder

A Sound of Thunder is a short story by Ray Bradbury. It was first published in 1952 in Colliers magazine. "A Sound of Thunder" is a science fiction story with time travel.

                                               

Aliteracy

The problem of aliteracy is the state of being able to read but being uninterested in doing so. Teachers and school librarians are trying to deal with this problem.

                                               

American literature

American literature is poetry, fiction, drama, or essays written by Americans. It also includes literature written by people living in the United States.

                                               

Anonymous work

Anonymous works are works, such as art or literature, made by someone who is anonymous. Some authors or artists choose to keep their identity a secret; others cannot reveal their names for legal reasons. In 2007, The Washington Post published an ...

                                               

Anthropomorphism

Anthropomorphism is suggesting that non-human things have human traits, emotions, and intentions. It is common for people to do this. Anthropomorphism is often used in stories and art. The story of the "Three Little Pigs" has a wolf and pigs who ...

                                               

Captivity narrative

Captivity narratives are stories of people captured by enemies who are not civilized. Historians - people who study history - do not trust a lot of these stories. A lot of them are not written from a neutral point of view. Some historians that st ...

                                               

Caribbean poetry

Caribbean poetry is a vast and vibrant field of poetry. It spans the poetry of many countries, including Cuba, Puerto Rico, Dominica, Haiti, Trinidad, Jamaica, and Martinique. Caribbean poets often write poetry in English, French, or Spanish. How ...