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Andrey Kolmogorov

Andrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov was a Soviet mathematician and computer scientist. He made major advances in the fields of probability theory and topology. Born in a Russian family in Tambov, he worked early in his career on intuitionistic logic, a ...

                                               

Anne, Princess Royal

Anne, Princess Royal, Anne was born at Clarence House in London, She is the second child, and the only daughter, of Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. She married Captain Mark Phillips in 1973, and had two children, Peter Phillips ...

                                               

William Astbury

William Thomas Astbury FRS was an English physicist and molecular biologist. Astbury made early X-ray diffraction studies of biological molecules. His work on keratin helped Linus Pauling discover the alpha helix. He also studied the structure fo ...

                                               

Edward William Binney

Edward William Binney FRS was an English geologist. Edward William Binney was born in Morton, Nottinghamshire in 1812. He was apprenticed to a solicitor in Chesterfield. In 1836, he went to Manchester. He soon retired from legal practice to study ...

                                               

Robert Boyle

Robert Boyle FRS was a 17th-century natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, inventor and founding member of the Royal Society. Boyle was born in Ireland to a titled Anglo-Irish family. He was the fourteenth child of Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Co ...

                                               

Sydney Brenner

Sydney Brenner CH FRS was a South African biologist and a 2002 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine laureate, shared with Robert Horvitz and John Sulston. He was of Jewish descent. Brenner made significant contributions to work on the genetic co ...

                                               

Gavin de Beer

Sir Gavin Rylands de Beer FRS was a British evolutionary embryologist. He was Director of the London Natural History Museum, President of the Linnean Society, and received the Royal Societys Darwin Medal for his studies on evolution. In the First ...

                                               

E. E. Evans-Pritchard

Sir Edward Evan Evans-Pritchard was a British anthropologist and ethnographer who is known for studying East African cultures and his early practice of cultural relativism.

                                               

Ronald Fisher

Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher FRS was an English statistician, evolutionary biologist, and geneticist. He was described as "a genius who almost single-handedly created the foundations for modern statistical science". Richard Dawkins described him as " ...

                                               

John Edward Gray

John Edward Gray FRS studied medicine in London, and became an English zoologist. Gray was Keeper of Zoology at the British Museum from 1840 until Christmas 1874. That was before the natural history holdings were split off to be the Natural Histo ...

                                               

Nehemiah Grew

Nehemiah Grew was an English plant anatomist and physiologist, the "Father of Plant Anatomy". Grew graduated from Pembroke College, Cambridge in 1661, and ten years later took the degree of M.D. at Leiden University. He began work on the anatomy ...

                                               

W.D. Hamilton

William Donald Hamilton FRS was an English evolutionary biologist whom Richard Dawkins praised as one of the greatest evolutionary theorists of the 20th century. Hamilton became famous through his theoretical work on kin selection and altruism. H ...

                                               

Oliver Heaviside

Oliver Heaviside was a self-taught English electrical engineer, mathematician, and physicist. Although he was well known in the scientific world during his life, it was not until after his death that people realized how much he had changed the st ...

                                               

William Herschel

Sir Frederick William Herschel FRS was a German-British astronomer, the greatest observational astronomer of the day. He is best known for discovering Uranus in 1781. He also discovered infrared radiation, binary stars, and published important ca ...

                                               

Alan Hodgkin

Sir Alan Hodgkin, OM, KBE, PRS was an English physiologist and biophysicist. He shared the 1963 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Andrew Huxley and John Eccles. Alan Hodgkin, Andrew Huxley, and John Eccles for his research on synapses we ...

                                               

Joseph Dalton Hooker

Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker OM GCSI CB MD FRS was a British botanist and explorer of the 19th century. Hooker was one of the founders of geographical botany, and Charles Darwins closest friend. He was Director of the Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, fo ...

                                               

Andrew Huxley

Sir Andrew Huxley OM FRS was an English physiologist and biophysicist. Huxley was born in Hampstead, London. He was the youngest son of writer and editor Leonard Huxley by his second wife Rosalind Bruce. He was the half-brother of writer Aldous H ...

                                               

Julian Huxley

Sir Julian Sorell Huxley FRS was an English evolutionary biologist, humanist and internationalist. He was born in London, and died there. He was a proponent of natural selection, and a leading figure in the modern evolutionary synthesis. He was S ...

                                               

John Kendrew

Sir John Cowdery Kendrew CBE FRS was an English biochemist and crystallographer. He shared the 1962 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Max Perutz. Their group in the Cavendish Laboratory was the first to determine the structure of proteins, using X-ra ...

                                               

Aaron Klug

Sir Aaron Klug OM PRS was a Lithuanian-born British chemist and biophysicist. Klug won the 1982 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for developing crystallographic electron microscopy and working out the structure of nucleic acid-protein complexes.

                                               

Hans Krebs

Sir Hans Krebs was a German Jewish scientist who became a naturalised British citizen. He was a physician and biochemist. Krebs researched metabolism. He is famous because he discovered the urea cycle and the citric acid cycle also called the Kre ...

                                               

Joseph Lister

Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister, was a British surgeon and a pioneer of antiseptic surgery. He promoted the idea of sterile surgery while working at the Glasgow Royal Infirmary. Lister successfully introduced carbolic acid phenol to sterilise sur ...

                                               

Marcello Malpighi

Marcello Malpighi was an Italian doctor, who gave his name to several physiological features, like the Malpighian tubule system. Although the microscope was invented early in the 17th century, it was not much used until Robert Hooke improved the ...

                                               

Gideon Mantell

Gideon Algernon Mantell MRCS FRS was an English obstetrician, geologist and palaeontologist. Mantells work on the structure and life of Iguanodon began the scientific study of dinosaurs. In 1822 he was responsible for the discovery and the eventu ...

                                               

Pierre-Louis Maupertuis

Pierre Louis Moreau de Maupertuis was a French mathematician, philosopher and man of letters. He became the Director of the Academie des Sciences, and the first President of the Prussian Academy of Science, at the invitation of Frederick the Grea ...

                                               

Peter Medawar

Sir Peter Brian Medawar OM CBE FRS was a British biologist. His work was important to skin grafts and organ transplants. Transplants of skin and organs from other people are usually rejected. This is an action by the immune system. Medawar showed ...

                                               

Johannes Muller

Johannes Peter Muller, was a German physiologist, comparative anatomist, ichthyologist, and herpetologist. In 1833 he became Professor of physiology at the University of Berlin. In the later part of his life he chiefly devoted himself to comparat ...

                                               

Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton was an English physicist, mathematician and astronomer. He is well known for his work on the laws of motion, optics, gravity, and calculus. In 1687, Newton published a book called the Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica i ...

                                               

Leslie Orgel

Leslie Eleazer Orgel FRS was a British chemist. Born in London, Orgel received his B.A. and Ph.D in chemistry at Magdalen College, Oxford University. He was one of the first people to see, in April 1953, Crick and Watsons model of DNA: at the tim ...

                                               

Richard Owen

Sir Richard Owen KCB was an English biologist, comparative anatomist and palaeontologist. Owen is probably best remembered today for coining the word Dinosauria meaning Terrible Reptile, and for his outspoken opposition to Charles Darwins theory ...

                                               

Karl Pearson

Karl Pearson FRS was an influential English mathematician. He helped establish the discipline of mathematical statistics. "Carl Pearson" became "Karl Pearson" by accident when he enrolled at the University of Heidelberg in 1879. They changed the ...

                                               

Samuel Pepys

Samuel Pepys, was an English administrator at the Admiralty and Member of Parliament. He is famous for his diary. Pepys rose to be the Chief Secretary to the Admiralty under Charles II, and later under James II. Although Pepys had no maritime exp ...

                                               

Max Perutz

Max Ferdinand Perutz FRS OM CBE was an Austrian-born British molecular biologist. He shared the 1962 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with John Kendrew, for their studies of the structures of haemoglobin and globular proteins. The method used was mainly ...

                                               

William Ramsay

Sir William Ramsay KCB FRS was a Scottish chemist. Ramsay discovered the noble gases. He also helped discover several elements that are on our periodic table today. He received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1904 "in recognition of his services ...

                                               

Ernest Rutherford

Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, OM, PC, FRS was a New Zealand-born British scientist, who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1908, for his work on nuclear physics, and for the theory of the structure of the atom.

                                               

Frederick Sanger

Frederick Sanger was an English biochemist. Sanger is a two-time Nobel laureate in chemistry, the only person to have been so. Sanger is the fourth person to have been given two Nobel Prizes, either individually or in tandem with others. In 1958 ...

                                               

John Sulston

Sir John Edward Sulston FRS was a British biologist. He was a joint winner of the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. He was the first Director of the Wellcome Sanger Institute, and then Chair of the Institute for Science, Ethics and Inno ...

                                               

William John Swainson

William John Swainson, Fellow of the Linnean Society and Fellow of the Royal Society, was an English ornithologist, malacologist, entomologist and artist.

                                               

J. J. Thomson

Sir Joseph John "J.J." Thomson, OM, FRS was a British physicist and Nobel laureate. He discovered the electron and isotopes, and invented the mass spectrometer. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1906 for his discovery of the electron a ...

                                               

William Thomson

William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, was a Scots-Irish mathematical physicist and engineer. He was born in Belfast in 1824. At the University of Glasgow he did important work in the mathematical analysis of electricity and formed the first and seco ...

                                               

John Tyndall

John Tyndall FRS 2 August 1820 – 4 December 1893) was an important 19th-century Irish physicist. He studied diamagnetism. Later he made discoveries about infrared radiation and the physical properties of the air. In 1859 he proved the connection ...

                                               

Alfred Russel Wallace

Alfred Russel Wallace OM, FRS was a British naturalist, explorer, biologist and social activist. He is best known for proposing a theory of natural selection. This was published in 1858 together with Charles Darwins idea. Wallace did extensive na ...

                                               

Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington

Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS was a soldier and statesman. He was one of the leading military and political figures of 19th-century Britain. His defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815 ...

                                               

Maurice Wilkins

Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins CBE FRS was a New Zealand-born English physicist and molecular biologist. Wilkins was born in New Zealand to a family from Dublin. When he was six, he moved to Birmingham. His research contributed to the understandi ...

                                               

Buckminster Fuller

Richard Buckminster "Bucky" Fuller was an American architect, engineer, author, designer, inventor and futurist. Fuller published more than 30 books, inventing and popularizing terms such as "Spaceship Earth", and "Synergetics". He also developed ...

                                               

Niels Bohr

Niels Bohr was a Danish physicist who helped discover quantum physics, the structure of the atom, and the atomic bomb. Bohr was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1922 for, in short, discovering the quantization of atomic energy levels. He worked also in ...

                                               

Ilya Mechnikov

Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov was a Ukrainian-Russian zoologist of Jewish descent. He won the 1908 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, with Paul Ehrlich, for finding out how immunity fights disease. Mechnikov was a protozoologist who became better kno ...

                                               

Ralph Steinman

Ralph Marvin Steinman was a Canadian immunologist and cell biologist at Rockefeller University. He studied a kind of cell in the immune system and called them dendritic cells. He made these discoveries while working in the laboratory of Zanvil A. ...

                                               

Nathaniel Wallich

Nathaniel Wallich FRS was a medical doctor and botanist from Denmark. He worked in India; firstly in the Danish settlement near Calcutta and later for the East India Company. He was involved in the early development of the Calcutta Botanical Gard ...

                                               

Wilhelm Weinberg

Wilhelm Weinberg was a German Jewish physician who became an important geneticist. He was a obstetrician and gynecologist, practising in Stuttgart. In 1908, he expressed the principle which would later come to be known as the Hardy–Weinberg law. ...