ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 39




                                               

Alto flute

The alto flute is a flute that plays a fourth lower than the regular flute. It is longer than the regular flute. Sometimes alto flutes have a bent part at the top end. The alto flute is a transposing instrument. This makes it easy for someone who ...

                                               

Flageolet

A flageolet is an old woodwind instrument. It belongs to the end-blown flute family. It started to be used in the 16th century for folk music. Soon there were two kinds: the French kind and the English. The French flageolet had four holes in the ...

                                               

Ocarina

An ocarina is a kind of flute that is not made out of a tube. Because the ocarina is in a round or box-like shape, its sound is a little different from other flutes.

                                               

Quena

The quena, also written as "kena" in English, is the traditional flute of Peru and the Andes. Made of bamboo, it has six finger holes and one thumb hole and is open on both ends. To make a sound, the player closes the top end of the pipe with the ...

                                               

Recorder

The recorder is a musical instrument that is a type of flute. It is shaped like a tube with one end bigger than the other end. A recorder player puts the bigger end in their mouth and blows into it. In Europe, people started to play the recorder ...

                                               

Shakuhachi

The shakuhachi, IPA is a Japanese flute which is played vertically like a recorder, instead of horizontally like the Western transverse flute. Its name means "1.8 foot", its size. It is traditionally made of bamboo, but ones made of wood or plast ...

                                               

Shehnai

A Shehnai is a South Asian music instrument which is normally played at marriages and other ceremonies, rites and rituals. The word itself is of Muslim/Turkish origin, combining Sheh Royal and -Nai or Ney, a type of Flute. A version of the Shehna ...

                                               

List of animal phyla

List of animal phyla is a list of the major groups of animals usually classified as a phylum. Modern sources have been used: the list is different from that of Linnaeus or Cuvier. A list of this type may be arranged alphabetically; equally it mig ...

                                               

Australian megafauna

Australian megafauna is a word used to describe a number of animal species in Australia that are quite a bit bigger than their closest living relatives. These species became extinct during the Pleistocene, but exact dates for their extinction hav ...

                                               

List of birds of Azerbaijan

This is a list of the bird species found in Azerbaijan. The bird fauna of Azerbaijan include a total of 371 species, of which 9 rare or accidental. A Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Azerbaijan.

                                               

List of dog breeds

People have carefully bred dogs for thousands of years. Sometimes they inbreed dogs who have the same close ancestors, and sometimes they mix dogs from very different ancestors or even from different breeds. This continues today, resulting in hun ...

                                               

List of introduced molluscs of Venezuela

This is a list of 52 species of molluscs that have been introduced into Venezuela, that are living in the wild, and that have been reported in the literature. Total number of introduced mollusc species: 52 Land gastropods: 22 species Freshwater g ...

                                               

Largest extinct animals

The largest extinct animals known to date are listed here. They are arranged by their taxonomy. The list only deals with individual animals; size of colonies is not dealt with here.

                                               

List of mammals of Azerbaijan

This list shows the IUCN Red List status of mammal species living in Azerbaijan. One species is endangered, five are vulnerable, and 11 are near threatened. The following tags are used to show each species global status as on the IUCN Red List pu ...

                                               

List of mammals of Great Britain

This is a list of mammals of Great Britain. The Great Britain mammal fauna is impoverished compared with that of continental Europe. This is because there was only a short time between the last ice age and the flooding of the land bridge between ...

                                               

The worlds 100 most threatened species

The worlds 100 most threatened species was chosen by over 8.000 scientists from the IUCN Species Survival Commission, and the Zoological Society of London. The report was published by the Zoological Society of London in 2012 as the book, Priceles ...

                                               

Anatomical terms of location

Anatomical terms of location have been developed. They help describe the anatomy of animals. They describe standard positions on an animal. They use Latin and Greek words.

                                               

Antlers

Antlers are usually large, branching structures, made of bone, which grow on the heads of deer and similar animals. With deer, only males have antlers. Only reindeer caribou have antlers on the females, and these are normally smaller than those o ...

                                               

Appendage

An appendage is a part of animals attached the main body. Many arthropods have appendages on each, or most, of their segments. Millipedes, for example, have many segments, and almost all carry two legs. Insects have exactly six legs, two on each ...

                                               

Beak

A beak, a bill, or a rostrum is the nose and mouth of a bird. The beak is used for eating, fighting, grooming, and many other things. Beaks on different types of birds can be very different in size, shape and color. Beaks are made of an upper and ...

                                               

Claw

A claw is a sharp object. It is found at the end of a toe or finger in many mammals, birds, and some reptiles. The word "claw" is also used in reference to an invertebrate. For example, the chelae of crabs and lobsters are often called claws or p ...

                                               

Cnida

The cnida is the basic term for the stinging apparatus of the phylum Cnidaria. The whole life-style of the phylum is based on this device, which enables the animals to catch their prey. The cnida appears in several forms: the most usual is the ne ...

                                               

Comparative anatomy

Comparative anatomy is the scientific comparison of animal bodies. The purpose of comparative anatomy is to see their working structure, and to decide upon the phylogenetic relationships between different groups of animals. The separation of anim ...

                                               

Crest (feathers)

The crest, in some cases called a crown, of a bird, is a group of feathers that some species of birds have on top of the head. The feathers of these crests can move up and down or be permanently up, depending of the species. For example, the cres ...

                                               

Crop (anatomy)

A crop is a thin-walled expanded portion of the alimentary canal used for storing food before digestion. It is found in many animals. It occurs in birds, some dinosaurs, and invertebrate animals such as gastropods, earthworms, leeches, and insects.

                                               

Endoskeleton

An endoskeleton is a structure that holds an animal from inside. One can find endoskeletons in three phyla and one subclass of animals: in Chordata, Echinodermata, Porifera and Coleoidea. An endoskeleton allows the body to move and gives the body ...

                                               

Exoskeleton

An exoskeleton supports and protects an animals body from outside and not like the internal endoskeleton - of, for example human beings - from inside. Many invertebrate animals such as shelled mollusks have exoskeletons in the sense of external h ...

                                               

Feather

Feathers are the things which cover birds. They help keep birds warm. Feathers also protect them from injury. In most kinds of birds, feathers help them to fly.

                                               

Fin

A fin is a surface used to produce lift and thrust or to steer while traveling in water, air, or other fluid media. The word was first used for the limbs of fish, but it is now also used to mean other animal limbs and human-made devices. The fins ...

                                               

Fur

Fur is the hair of mammals. Different species may have quite different styles of hair, making them more or less suitable to the fur trade, but many are as follows: Fur usually consists of two main layers: Guard hair - the top layer is longer, coa ...

                                               

Gastrointestinal tract

Gastrointestinal tract is the term used in zoology for the gut of animals. For humans in particular, see human gastrointestinal tract. The tract or tube is in bilaterian animals. It carries food through digestion and excretion. Into the tube come ...

                                               

Gill

Gills are what fish, amphibians, and some other animals use to breathe in water. They have feathery parts which cause water to move across the animals body, which contains dissolved oxygen, after the animal has swallowed the water. The oxygen is ...

                                               

Horn (anatomy)

Horns are part of the body of some animals. They grow on the animals head. They are projections made of hard skin. The horn has a lot of keratin in it, the same protein that is in human hair and nails. Normally horned animals will have two horns, ...

                                               

Metamorphosis

Metamorphosis in biology means the process of transformation from an immature form to an adult form in two or more distinct stages. Good examples are insects and amphibians. Life for most insects begins as a larva or nymph then progresses to the ...

                                               

Nephron

Nephrons are tiny tubules which make up the smallest working part of the kidney. In other words, they are the smallest level where the kidney removes waste, excess salt and excess water. Each nephron starts in the cortex of the kidney, then goes ...

                                               

Notochord

The notochord is a flexible, rod-shaped body found in embryos of all chordates. It forms the axis of the embryo. In some chordates, it persists throughout life as the main support down the length of the body. In most vertebrates it is replaced by ...

                                               

Ovipositor

An ovipositor is the long hollow tube on the rear of female insects. Through this tube they lay eggs. The ovipositor is formed by the union of three pairs of rear appendages. In many species it is a piercing organ which allows the insect to put i ...

                                               

Parotoid gland

The parotoid gland is a skin gland on the back, neck and shoulder of toads and some frogs and salamanders. Its secretes has a substance that predators can smell. This smell will tell them that they are toxic animals. The substance, bufotoxin, act ...

                                               

Pedipalp

Pedipalps are the two appendages on the front of a spiders head. Some spiders seem to have ten legs and not eight, because these pedipalps look like an extra pair of legs. The pedipalps are used rather like arms. Spiders often use them to hold in ...

                                               

Radula

The radula is the toothed chitinous ribbon in the mouth of most molluscs. It can be compared with the tongue of human beings but, unlike our tongue, it is used for cutting and chewing food before it enters the esophagus. The radula is present in ...

                                               

Scute

Scutes are similar to scales and serve the same function. Unlike the scales of fish and snakes, which are formed from the epidermis, scutes are formed in the lower vascular layer of the skin and the epidermal element is only the top surface. Form ...

                                               

Shell (zoology)

A shell is a hard outer layer, which has evolved in a very wide variety of different animals, including molluscs, sea urchins, crustaceans, turtles and tortoises, armadillos, etc.

                                               

Spur (zoology)

A spur is a bone covered in horn that grows out of an animals body. While claws or nails grow from the toes, spurs grow on other parts of the foot. These parts are usually connected with joints. Spurs are mostly found on the hindfeet, but some bi ...

                                               

Symmetry (biology)

Symmetry in biology is about the overall shape of the body and its parts. The body plans of most multicellular organisms have some form of symmetry, radial symmetry, bilateral symmetry or spherical symmetry. A few have no symmetry, and are asymme ...

                                               

Trachea

The trachea, or windpipe, is the bony tube that connects the nose and mouth to the lungs, and is an important part of the vertebrate respiratory system. In mammals, the trachea begins at the lower part of the larynx and continues to the lungs, wh ...

                                               

Tube feet

Tube feet are small tube-like projections on the underside of echinoderms. They are part of the water vascular system of echinoderms. Tube feet are used to move, feed and breathe. They are arranged in grooves along the arms. They operate through ...

                                               

Wing

A wing is part of an animal that allows it to fly. By moving its wings, the animal can produce lift and get off the ground. Animals that have wings are insects, birds and bats. Birds wings are made of feathers. The wings of bats are made of skin, ...

                                               

Clever Hans

Clever Hans was a horse that was supposed to be able to do lots of difficult mathematical sums and solve complicated problems. Later, it was discovered that the horse was giving the right answers by watching the reactions of the people who were w ...

                                               

Handicap principle

The handicap principle was invented by Prof. Amotz Zahavi from Tel Aviv University. It claims to explain the fact that some animals have characteristics that do not necessarily help them survive. Lets take the peacock for example. The peacocks ta ...

                                               

Stotting

Stotting is a behaviour of some bovines, particularly gazelles. They spring into the air, and lift all four feet off the ground simultaneously. Usually, the legs are held in a relatively stiff position and the back may be arched with the head poi ...