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Copley Medal

The Copley Medal is awarded by the Royal Society for the most important scientific discoveries. It was first awarded in 1731. It was awarded for "the most important scientific discovery for the greatest contribution made by experiment". The Cople ...

                                               

Crafoord Prize

The Crafoord Prize is an annual science prize established in 1980 by Holger and Anna-Greta Crafoord. It is administered by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. The prize is for "international basic research in the disciplines Astronomy, Mathema ...

                                               

Darwin Medal

The Darwin Medal is awarded by the Royal Society once every two years. It is for work in the areas of biology in which Charles Darwin worked. This means evolution, population biology, organismal biology and biological diversity. It was first awar ...

                                               

Darwin–Wallace Medal

The Darwin–Wallace Medal is awarded by the Linnean Society of London for "major advances in evolutionary biology". The medals have been awarded every 50 years, beginning in 1908. That year marked 50 years after the joint presentation of papers by ...

                                               

Fields Medal

The Fields Medal is a prize given to mathematicians who are not over 40 years of age. It is given at each International Congress of the International Mathematical Union. This is a meeting that takes place every four years. The Canadian mathematic ...

                                               

Hughes Medal

The Hughes Medal is awarded by the Royal Society of London for original discoveries in electricity and magnetism or their applications. The medal was first given to J.J. Thomson in 1902 "for his numerous contributions to electric science, especia ...

                                               

National Medal of Science

The National Medal of Science is an honor given by the President of the United States. It is awarded to people in science and engineering who did important work in behavioral, social sciences, biology, chemistry, engineering, mathematics and physics.

                                               

Lars Onsager Prize

The Lars Onsager Prize is a prize in theoretical statistical physics. It is awarded annually by the American Physical Society. It was established in 1993 by Drs. Russell and Marian Donnelly in memory of Lars Onsager.

                                               

Royal Medal

The Royal Medal is a silver-gilt medal, of which three are awarded each year by the Royal Society. It is also known as The Kings Medal and The Queens Medal, The awards are for work done within the Commonwealth of Nations. The award was created by ...

                                               

Turing Award

The ACM A.M. Turing Award is an annual prize given by the Association for Computing Machinery to "an individual selected for contributions of a technical nature made to the computing community". It is named after Alan Turing and is given each yea ...

                                               

Betrayers of the Truth

Betrayers of the Truth: Fraud and Deceit in the Halls of Science is a book written in 1983 by William Broad and Nicholas Wade. The book is asks questions about of some beliefs about what science is and the method used by scientists to do science. ...

                                               

Book of Optics

The Book of Optics is a book that was written by Ibn al Haytham, an Arabic scientist and polymath. It was a seven-volume treatise on optics, physics, mathematics, anatomy and psychology, from 1011 to 1021. It was originally written in Arabic and ...

                                               

Charles Darwins books

Charles Darwin wrote about twenty books, including the most famous book in biology, the Origin of Species. The books covered the natural history sciences, now called geology, palaeontology, zoology, botany, anthropology, psychology and evolutiona ...

                                               

De revolutionibus orbium coelestium

De revolutionibus orbium coelestium is great work of the Renaissance astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus. The book, first printed in 1543 in Nuremberg, Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, offered proof that the Earth went round the Sun, and not vi ...

                                               

Harmonia Macrocosmica

The Harmonia Macrocosmica is a star atlas by Andreas Cellarius. It was published in 1660 by Johannes Janssonius. The first part of the atlas has copper plate prints showing the universe models of Claudius Ptolemy, Nicolaus Copernicus and Tycho Br ...

                                               

Kinsey Reports

The Kinsey Reports are two books, published in 1948 and 1953 by Alfred Kinsey and his co-workers. The books Sexual Behaviour in the Human Male and Sexual Behaviour in the Human Female, were based on thousands of interviews by Kinsey and his team. ...

                                               

The Sceptical Chymist

The Sceptical Chymist is a cornerstone book in the history of chemistry. It was written by Robert Boyle FRS 1627–1691. He was a 17th century natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor. Boyle was an alchemist, but also the first modern ...

                                               

Theory of Colours

Theory of Colours is a book by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe published in 1810. It contains some of the earliest and most accurate descriptions of phenomena such as coloured shadows, refraction, and chromatic aberration. Its influence extends primar ...

                                               

Theory of the Earth

Theory of the Earth was a publication by James Hutton which laid the foundations for geology. In it he showed that the Earth is the product of natural forces. What could be seen happening today, over long periods of time, could produce what we se ...

                                               

Totem and Taboo

Totem and Taboo is a book by Sigmund Freud. It is four articles in the magazine Imago then combined as a book in 1914. The first article is "The Horror of Incest", the second "Taboo and Emotional Ambivalence", the third "animism, magic, and the o ...

                                               

FrogWatch

FrogWatch is a name shared by citizen science programs that do the same thing. In a FrogWatch, people make recordings of frogs and other amphibians that live near them and send the recordings to databases for scientists and other people to hear a ...

                                               

INaturalist

iNaturalist is an American website where people post scientific information about plants, animals and other living things. Usually, they send photographs of which living things they saw and say where and when they saw them. iNaturalist works by c ...

                                               

Vigie-Cratere

Vigie-Cratere is a citizen science project from France. In Vigie-Cratere, ordinary people help scientists find craters on the surface of the Earth left by meteors, which are rocks that float through outer space. After they hit the Earth, they are ...

                                               

Aeolipile

An aeolipile or Heros Engine, is a simple kind of steam engine believed to have been invented by Hero of Alexandria in the 1st century AD. It may have been the first steam engine made.

                                               

Air conditioner

Note:the term "air conditioning" refers to any form of "Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning". This article deals specifically with units used as part of a cooling system. An air conditioner is a system or a machine that treats air in a defi ...

                                               

Artesian aquifer

An artesian aquifer is an underground layer which holds groundwater under pressure. This causes the water level in the well to rise to a point where the pressure is equal to the weight of water putting it under pressure. This type of well is call ...

                                               

Atlas (missile)

Atlas was a missile built by the Convair Division of General Dynamics. It was originally designed as an ICBM in the late 1950s. It launched the Mercury project space capsules and became the foundation for a family of successful space launch vehic ...

                                               

Audio engineer

An audio engineer is a person who operates, and usually chooses and sets up recording equipment. The term applies mainly to a person who works in a recording studio but can also apply to people who do the same kind of work, in other places. An en ...

                                               

Bean machine

The bean machine, also known as the quincunx or Galton box, is a machine invented by Sir Francis Galton to demonstrate the law of error and the normal distribution. The machine consists of a vertical board with interleaved rows of pins. Balls are ...

                                               

Bearing (mechanical)

A bearing is a device to permit fixed direction motion between two parts, typically rotation or linear movement. Bearings may be broadly grouped by the way they work. The most common of the many types are plain bearings and rolling-element bearin ...

                                               

Bending

This article is about the structural behavior. For other meanings see Bending. In engineering and mechanics, bending also known as flexure characterizes the behavior of a structural element subjected to a lateral load i.e. at right angles to its ...

                                               

Biological engineering

                                               

Biomedical engineering

Biomedical engineering is the study of medical equipment used in an environment of care or training and how this equipment interfaces with the human body. Biomedical engineers design, test, modify, recommend modification of, and evaluate all medi ...

                                               

Blueprint

A blueprint is a technical drawing which usually contains instructions for how to build an architecture or engineering design. It is sometimes used to talk about any detailed plan.

                                               

Bulk material handling

Bulk material handling is a field of engineering. It involves designing equipment to handle dry materials in their bulk form. It consists of stationary machinery, mobile equipment and storage facilities. The purpose of this process is to transpor ...

                                               

Chemical engineering

Chemical engineering is a branch of engineering dealing with chemistry that came to existence in the early 20th century. Before this time, chemical plants were designed by chemists, who were trained to work on a small scale only. Chemical enginee ...

                                               

Compressive stress

Compressive stress is the stress on materials that leads to a smaller volume. By compressive stress the material is under compression. Compressive stress to bars, columns, etc. leads to shortening. One can increase the compressive stress until co ...

                                               

Computer engineering

Computer engineering is the practice of making computers and their parts. Computer engineers are always trying to make new parts smaller and better. They can also work on software, especially software for embedded systems. Computers are electrica ...

                                               

Control engineering

Control engineering is the engineering field that focuses on mathematical modeling of dynamical systems, and uses control theory to create controllers that cause the systems to behave in some desired manner. Modern control engineering is closely ...

                                               

Counterweight

                                               

Crane (machine)

A crane is a lifting machine that has hoists, wire ropes and sheaves on it. It can be used both to raise and lower things or to move them left and right. Cranes are often used in the construction industry and in creating or moving heavy things.

                                               

Crown gear

A crown gear is a gear where the teeth of the gear are not flat, but at an angle. The most common such angle is a right angle. The name crown gear comes from the facr that these gears look like crowns. Crown gears were widely used in antiquity an ...

                                               

Cyclonic separation

Cyclonic separation is a process to take out all of the unwanted particles from air, gas, or steam. The process uses a process called vortex separation and does not use filtering. It uses rotational and gravitational force to separate the unwante ...

                                               

Degree of freedom

Degree of freedom of a particle or a body is simply the number of ways in which it can possess energy. It may be simply defined as the number of independent coordinates required to define motion of that body.

                                               

Digital signal

Digital signals are digital representations of discrete-time signals, which are often produced by changing an analog signal. An analog signal is a datum that changes over time for instance the temperature at a given place; the depth of a certain ...

                                               

Doping (semiconductor)

In electronics, doping is the process of adding certain chemical elements to a semiconductor in order to change its electric conductivity. These elements are tiny impurities. This is done to create diodes that make electricity go in one direction ...

                                               

Electrical engineering

Electrical engineering is a subject of engineering. Its goal is to develop different things that use electricity in a helpful way. Electrical engineers fix or design new and better ways of using devices that use electricity. Big subjects in elect ...

                                               

Energy conservation

Energy conservation is reducing the amount of energy used for different purposes. This may result in an increase of financial capital, environmental value, national and personal security, and human comfort. Individuals and organizations that cons ...

                                               

Euler-Bernoulli Beam Theory

Euler–Bernoulli beam theory is a simple method to calculate bending of beams when a load is applied. This applies to small deflections of a beam without considering effects of shear deformations. Therefore, it can be considered a special case of ...

                                               

Failure rate

Failure rate is the frequency with which an engineered system or component fails. Usually it is expressed in a number of failures per time period, like failures per hour. It is often written as the Greek letter λ and is important in reliability t ...

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