## Theory of computation

The theory of computation is a branch of mathematics. Generally it is seen as belonging to computer science. The field of study of this subject is to see if a certain problem can be solved by a computer. If this is the case, then the question is ...

## Topological space

A topological space is a space studied in topology, the mathematics of the structure of shapes. Roughly, it is a set of things along with a way to know which things are close together. More precisely, a topological space has a certain kind of set ...

## Topology

Topology is an area of Mathematics, which studies how spaces are organized and how they are structured in terms of position. It also studies how spaces are connected. It is divided into algebraic topology, differential topology and geometric topo ...

## Transitivity (mathematics)

In general, given a set with a relation, the relation is transitive if whenever a is related to b and b is related to c, then a is related to c. For example: Rock, paper, scissors is not transitive: rock beats scissors, and scissors beats paper, ...

## Unit circle

In mathematics, a unit circle is a circle with a radius of 1. The equation of the unit circle is x 2 + y 2 = 1 {\displaystyle x^{2}+y^{2}=1}. The unit circle is centered at the Origin, or coordinates. It is often used in Trigonometry.

## United States of America Mathematical Olympiad

United States of America Mathematical Olympiad, or USAMO, is a highly selective mathematics competition that takes place in the United States. The first USAMO was in 1972. It is the final round of the AMC series of contests. The United States of ...

## Universe of discourse

In mathematics, the universe of discourse or domain of discourse is a set of all elements to which a function applies. A variable can take any of the values in its universe of discourse. The term is also used informally. "In every discourse, whet ...

## Variable

In mathematics, a variable is usually given a letter, such as x or y. For example: The letters m, n, p, q are often used as variables for integers. The letters a, b and c are often used as coefficients of functions. The letter t is often used as ...

## Weighted average

A weighted average is the average of values which are scaled by importance. The weighted average of values is the sum of weights times values divided by the sum of the weights.

## Wheel theory

Wheel theory is the theory of wheels. A wheel is an algebraic structure where division by 0 has meaning. The term wheel was inspired by the topological picture ⊙ {\displaystyle \odot }.

Zenos paradoxes are a famous set of thought-provoking stories or puzzles created by Zeno of Elea in the mid-5th century BC. Philosophers, physicists, and mathematicians have argued for 25 centuries over how to answer the questions raised by Zenos ...

## Measurement

Measurement means compare to a fix standard value. To measure something is to give a number to some property of the thing. Measuring something puts the amount of the thing into numbers. Measurement can be written using many different units. For e ...

## Size

The size of something is how much space the thing takes. It can also be described as how big or small something is. Sizes can be measured. When a size is measured, it is given a number.

## Annual average daily traffic

Annual average daily traffic, abbreviated AADT, is a measure used primarily in transportation planning and transportation engineering. Traditionally, it is the total volume of vehicle traffic of a highway or road for a year divided by 365 days. A ...

## Anthropometry

Anthropometry was first created by Alphonse Bertillon. He was born in Paris, France. When he became a police officer, he created Anthropometry so that criminals could be easily identified. The system helped the police to get through many criminal ...

## Approximation

An approximation is a version of a piece of information that does not describe it exactly, but is close enough to be used. An approximation may be used either when the exact piece of information is not known, or when its too long or complicated a ...

## Comparison of the Imperial and US customary systems

The main difference is in units of volume. The American system has two gallons: a wet and a dry one. The imperial gallon is bigger than each of these. However, the imperial fluid ounce is slightly smaller than the American one.

## Conversion of units

The term conversion of units refers to changing an amount of a measurement unit into another unit. There are many different systems of units, so some conversions can be very complex. Most conversions involve a conversion factor, and a shift amoun ...

## Density

Density is a measurement that compares the amount of matter an object has to its volume. An object with much matter in a certain volume has high density. An object with little matter in the same amount of volume has a low density. Density is foun ...

## Dimensional analysis

Dimensional analysis is a method used in chemistry, physics, and other sciences. It is used to convert measurements and to find out somethings dimensions. Sometimes it is called factor label method or unit analysis. Any math done with numbers mus ...

A hogshead is a measurement unit in the imperial system. It was derived in the 14th century by weighing King Henry IVs hogs head. The measure was used throughout Europe but the length varied from country to country, even city to city. The hogshea ...

## Infinitesimal

Newton and Leibniz developed the calculus based on an intuitive notion of an infinitesimal. In 1870, Karl WeierstraS provided the first rigorous treatment of the calculus, using the limit method. But in 1960, Abraham Robinson found that infinites ...

## International Bureau of Weights and Measures

The International Bureau of Weights and Measures is an organization that is based in Sevres near Paris in France. Its name in French is Bureau international des poids et mesures ". The abbreviation of its name in all languages is BIPM. These are ...

## Mach number

A mach number is a number that describes speed. It is a measure of the speed of an object compared to the speed of sound. Mach number is given as a percentage compared to the local speed of sound. For example, half the speed of sound = Mach 0.5. ...

## Physical property

A physical property is a property, quality or way that an object is. A physical property can always be measured without changing or making the object chemically different or different in a way that would effect its chemical or atomic structure. T ...

## Physical quantity

In physics, a physical quantity is any physical property that can be quantified, that is, be measured using numbers. Examples of physical quantities are mass, amount of substance, length, time, temperature, electric current, light intensity, forc ...

## Pressure

Pressure means how much force something is pushing on something else with. It is expressed as force acting per unit area: P = F / A Pressure = Force divided by Area that force is acting on It can also be defined as thrust compressive force acting ...

## Scalar

Scalars are simple numbers. They are used for measuring things. Many things can be measured, and the measure can be explained by only giving the number. Suppose we are measuring a rod. We could give the measured length as 2 metres or 3 cm - depen ...

## Scientific notation

Scientific notation is a way of writing numbers that is often used by scientists and mathematicians to make it easier to write large and small numbers. A number that is written in scientific notation has several properties that make it very usefu ...

## Sidereal time

Sidereal time is a time-keeping system. It is used by astronomers to find celestial objects. Using sidereal time it is possible to point a telescope to the proper coordinates in the night sky. Sidereal time is a "time scale based on Earths rate o ...

## Spectroscopy

Spectroscopy is the study of light as a function of length of the wave that has been emitted, reflected or shone through a solid, liquid, or gas. To be analyzed the chemical is heated, because hot things glow and each chemical glows differently. ...

## Speed

Speed is the distance of a moving object in a given amount of time. Speed is a measure of how fast something is moving. The average speed of an object in a certain time is the distance the object travelled divided by the time. Speed is also the d ...

## Standard

A standard is a basis for comparison. Standards are made either by many people that agree on something, or if some organisation makes it so. There are many different standards in many fields of daily life. Standards are important so that correct ...

## System of measurement

A system of measurement is a set of related measures that are used to give a numeric value to something. A "system of measurement" is also known as a "metric". There are many systems of measurement. Some systems of measurement describe physical s ...

## United States customary units

U.S. customary units is the system of units of measurement used to measure things in the United States. The system of Imperial units is similar and in some parts identical. Length or distance units include the inch, foot, yard and mile. Land unit ...

## Velocity

Velocity is a measure of how fast something moves in a particular direction. To define it needs both magnitude and direction. If an object moves east at 9 metres per second, then its velocity is 9 m/s to the east. The idea behind this is that spe ...

## Weight

The weight of an object is the measure of the intensity of the force imposed on this object by the local gravitational field. Weight should not be confused with the related but quite different concept of mass. For small objects on Earth, the weig ...

## Natural environment

Natural environment means all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning not because of humans. The universe is natural, but often the term "natural environment" only means nature on Earth. Two aspects are usually included Ecologic ...

## Teleology

Teleology is a philosophical idea that things have goals or causes. It is the "view that developments are due to the purpose or design which is served by them". An example would be Aristotles view of nature, later adopted by the Catholic Church. ...

## Biochemist

A biochemist is a person who studies biochemistry. This is the study of the chemicals in living things. It can include blood, proteins, and enzymes. Famous biochemists include: Paul Karrer who won the 1937 Nobel Prize in Chemistry Henrik Dam and ...

## Botanist

A botanist is a scientist who studies plants, including flowering plants, and plant-like things such as moss and seaweed. Botany is a scientific study of plants along with their growth, structure, evolution, and uses. Botanists may specialize in ...

## Chemist

A chemist is a scientist who studies chemistry. In England can also mean a pharmacist. Chemistry is the study of elements, atoms, molecules, and how they react together. Chemists research and test medicines, explosives, and a lot of other things. ...

## Mathematician

A mathematician is someone who studies mathematics, either as a hobby or as a job. Many mathematicians are math professors at universities, or work at cryptography. Euclid, Ramanujan, Sir Isaac Newton are some of the most famous early mathematicians.

## Physicist

A physicist is a scientist who studies physics. Here are some famous physicists: Galileo Galilei Werner Heisenberg Nikola Tesla Donna Strickland Leo Szilard Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose Albert Einstein C.V. Raman Satyendra Nath Bose Niels Bohr Erwin ...

## Scientist

A scientist is a person who studies or has mastered the field in science. A scientist tries to understand how our world, or other things, work. Scientists make observations, ask questions and do extensive research work in finding the answers to m ...

## Autopoiesis

Autopoiesis refers to life and other self-organising systems. The word means "self creation or self-production". It refers to a system which can reproduce and sustain itself. The term was introduced in 1972 by Chilean biologists Humberto Maturana ...

## Bayesian probability

Bayesian probability figures out the likelihood that something will happen based on available evidence. This is different from frequency probability which determines the likelihood something will happen based on how often it occurred in the past. ...

## Commensurability

Commensurability is a concept in the philosophy of science. Scientific theories are described as commensurable if one can compare them to find out which is more accurate. If there is no way one can compare them to determine which is more accurate ...

## Falsifiability

Falsifiability is a concept from philosophy of science that says that it is possible to prove that a theory is wrong. There are different ways in which can be done. The easiest way to do it is to find an example where the theory should apply, but ...

## Hypothesis

A hypothesis is a proposed explanation for some event or problem. For a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires that one can test it. In the early 17th century, Cardinal Bellarmine gave a well known example of the older sense of the ...