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2004 in science

January 24 - NASAs Opportunity rover lands on Mars. March 2 - NASA says that the area where their Mars probe Opportunity landed shows unmistakable signs of contact with water in the geological past. November 15 - The SMART-1 space probe reaches o ...

                                               

2006 in science

January 19 - The NASA spacecraft New Horizons was launched for a journey to Pluto. February 1 - The dwarf planet Eris was found to be bigger than Pluto. September 13 - 2003 UB 313 received the name Eris. August 24 - Pluto was ordered as a dwarf p ...

                                               

2008 in science

October 6 - NASAs MESSENGER spacecraft makes the second flyby of Mercury. January 15 - NASAs MESSENGER spacecraft makes its first flyby of Mercury at 200 km height. August 1 - Total solar eclipse that could be seen in Canada, Siberia, Mongolia an ...

                                               

100.000-year problem

The amount of incoming solar radiation, also called insolation determines the temperature on Earth. This temperature rises and falls according to the strength of radiation given off by the sun, the distance from the earth to the sun, and the tilt ...

                                               

225088 Gonggong

225088 Gonggong is a likely dwarf planet of the Solar System. It is a member of the scattered disc. It has a highly eccentric orbit. It is from 34–101 astronomical units from the Sun. It is the sixth-farthest known Solar System object. Gonggong w ...

                                               

Absolute temperature

Absolute temperature, also called thermodynamic temperature, is the temperature of an object on a scale where 0 is taken as absolute zero. Absolute temperature scales are Kelvin and Rankine. Absolute zero is the temperature at which a system is i ...

                                               

Acetobacter

Acetobacter is a kind of bacteria. These bacteria are known by their ability to change alcohol to acetic acid in the presence of air. There are several species within this genus, and there are other bacteria that can form acetic acid under differ ...

                                               

Addiction

Addiction is when the body or mind badly wants or needs something in order to work right. When you have addiction to something it is called being addicted or being an addict. People can be addicted to drugs, cigarettes, alcohol, caffeine, and man ...

                                               

Adduction

Adduction is a form of movement in animal biology which brings a part of the anatomy closer to the sagittal plane of the body. The opposite of adduction is abduction.

                                               

Adhesive

An adhesive is a compound that sticks or bonds two items together. Adhesives may come from either natural or man-made material. Some modern adhesives are extremely strong, and are becoming increasingly important in modern construction and industr ...

                                               

Aegir (moon)

Aegir or Saturn XXXVI is a moon of Saturn. Its discovery was announced by Scott S. Sheppard, David C. Jewitt, Jan Kleyna, and Brian G. Marsden on May 4, 2005, from observations taken between December 12, 2004, and March 11, 2005. Aegir is about 6 ...

                                               

Aerodynamics

Aerodynamics means studying how air travels around something moving through it. Streamlining to reduce drag in vehicles is a major field in aerodynamics. Aircraft design is another. The study of gases that are not in motion is called aerostatics. ...

                                               

Aerogel

Aerogel is a gel in which the liquid part has been replaced with a gas. It was invented in 1931 by Samuel Stephens Kistler. The most common type of aerogel is silica aerogel, which is made from the same molecule as glass. It is a solid material t ...

                                               

Aerosol

An aerosol is a suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets in a gas. Examples are smoke, oceanic haze, air pollution, smog and CS gas. When they say aerosol most people mean an aerosol spray can or the spray it makes. To differentiate ...

                                               

Aerospace engineering

Aerospace engineering is a field of engineering that specializes in designing vehicles that move through air and/or space, namely aircraft or spacecraft. Aerospace engineering is a culmination of design, development and testing to produce top-not ...

                                               

Aitne (moon)

Aitne or Jupiter XXXI, is a non-spherical moon of Jupiter. It was found by a team of astronomers from the University of Hawaii led by Scott S. Sheppard, et al. in 2001, and given the designation S/2001 J 11. Aitne is about 3 kilometres in diamete ...

                                               

Alabaster

Alabaster is a name applied to varieties of two distinct minerals. Gypsum is a hydrous sulfate of calcium, and calcite is a carbonate of calcium. Gypsum is the alabaster of the present day; calcite is generally the alabaster of the ancients. Both ...

                                               

Alcubierre drive

The Alcubierre drive or Alcubierre warp drive is an idea for a faster-than-light travel engine. The Mexican theoretical physicist Miguel Alcubierre created this idea using Albert Einsteins field equations in general relativity. The main principle ...

                                               

Alluvial fan

An alluvial fan is a fan-shaped deposit of soil and rocks. It forms where a fast-flowing river spreads out over a flat plain. They are usually found in between mountain ranges that are crumbling away. If it rains a lot, the fan area will usually ...

                                               

Ambient intelligence

Ambient intelligence is an idea from computer science to create an environment of machines that meaningfully interact with people. The idea is that these machines help people solve the problems they have, and that people can interact with the mac ...

                                               

Amorphous solid

An amorphous solid does not have a definite geometric or crystalline shape. It is a solid in which there is no long-term order in the positions of the atoms. Most classes of solid materials can be found or prepared in an amorphous form. For insta ...

                                               

Anal retentive

The words anal-retentive, often shortened to "anal", are used in everyday language to describe a person with so much attention to detail that the obsession becomes annoying to other people. The idea was thought up by Sigmund Freud

                                               

Andromeda (constellation)

Andromeda is a constellation in the northern sky. It is named after the princess Andromeda in Greek mythology. It is sometimes called "Princess of Ethiopia" or "the Chained Woman" in English. It has also been called Persea or Cepheis. The astrono ...

                                               

Andromeda XIX

Andromeda XIX is a satellite galaxy of the Andromeda Galaxy, and is part of the Local Group, like the Milky Way Galaxy. Andromeda XIX is said to be "the most extended dwarf galaxy known in the Local Group", and has a half-light radius of 1.7 kilo ...

                                               

Anhedonia

In psychology, anhedonia is not being able to feel pleasure. This may include not enjoying things like eating, exercise, watching movies, meeting friends, social activities, or sexual interaction and activity. In most cases, anhedonia is caused b ...

                                               

Animal husbandry

Animal husbandry is the care and breeding of animals, particularly livestock. People have done this for a very long time; it is much older than agriculture. Nomadic people and people In rural areas often teach their children how to care for their ...

                                               

Antares

Antares is a red supergiant star in the Milky Way galaxy and the sixteenth brightest star in the nighttime sky. It is listed as 15th or 16th brightest, depending on how the two brighter components of the Capella quadruple star system are counted. ...

                                               

Antigen

An antigen is a molecule expressed by a bacterium or virus that is recognized by the adaptive immune system as foreign which can stimulate the production of antibodies and combine specifically with them. Usually an antigen is a molecule, perhaps ...

                                               

Antlia

The constellation Antlia is a group of stars in the southern sky. Its name means "pump" and comes from the Ancient Greek word ἀντλία. It represents an air or vacuum pump. The stars that make Antlia are not bright or easy to see. The constellation ...

                                               

Aoede (moon)

Aoede or Jupiter XLI, is a moon of Jupiter. It was found by a team of astronomers from the University of Hawaii led by Scott S. Sheppard in 2003. It received the designation S/2003 J 7. Aoede is about 4 km 2.5 mi in diameter, and orbits Jupiter a ...

                                               

Apollo 10

Apollo 10 was a crewed F-Type mission of NASAs Apollo program to land a man on the surface of the Moon. It was the fourth crewed mission and was a full rehearsal for the actual landing by Apollo 11. It was launched on May 10, 1969. The three astr ...

                                               

Apollo 12

Apollo 12 was the sixth crewed flight in the Apollo program. It was the second crewed spacecraft to land on the Moon. Apollo 12 was launched on November 14, 1969. Charles "Pete" Conrad and Alan Bean become the third and fourth persons to stand on ...

                                               

Apollo 15

Apollo 15 was the ninth crewed flight of NASAs Apollo program. It was the fourth mission to land on the surface of the Moon and the first J-Type mission. Apollo 15 was launched on July 26, 1971. Alfred Worden stayed in orbit in the Command Module ...

                                               

Apollo 16

Apollo 16 was the tenth crewed space flight in NASAs Apollo program. It was the 5th of six Apollo missions to land on the Moon. It was a J-Type mission, as having a longer stay on the Moon. Launched on April 16, 1972, Ken Mattingly stayed in orbi ...

                                               

Apollo 17

Apollo 17 was the last flight to send people to the moon. It was done by NASA, the American space group. It went up to space on December 7, 1972, carrying three astronauts: Eugene Cernan, Harrison Schmitt and Ronald Evans. On December 11, 1972, C ...

                                               

Apollo command and service module

The Apollo command and service module was one of two spacecraft, along with the Lunar Module, used for the United States Apollo program which landed astronauts on the Moon. It was built for NASA by North American Aviation. It was launched by itse ...

                                               

Aqua regia

Aqua regia is a very strong acid. It is made by mixing one part concentrated nitric acid and three parts concentrated hydrochloric acid. The acid was named by alchemists because it can dissolve the noble metals gold and platinum. Tantalum, iridiu ...

                                               

Aquanaut

An aquanaut is a person who stays at the bottom of the ocean for 24 hours or longer while exposed to the pressure of the water at that depth in the ocean. This usually happens in a special building, called an underwater habitat, on the ocean bott ...

                                               

Ara (constellation)

Ara is a constellation in the southern sky. Ara means altar in Latin. It was one of the 48 constellations written down by the astronomer named Ptolemy in the 2nd century. It is also one of the 88 modern constellations that were made by the Intern ...

                                               

Arche (moon)

Arche or Jupiter XLIII, is a moon of Jupiter. It was found by a team of astronomers from the University of Hawaii led by Scott S. Sheppard in 2002, and got the designation S/2002 J 1. Arche is about 3 kilometres in diameter, and orbits Jupiter at ...

                                               

Arecibo Observatory

The Arecibo Observatory is an observatory in Arecibo, Puerto Rico. It is part of the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center. The observatory has a 305 m spherical reflector dish built into a natural sinkhole. For more than 50 years, the Arecibo ...

                                               

Ares V

The Ares V was a plan to create a cargo rocket for the cancelled Constellation program. Ares V was planned to launch the Earth Departure Stage and Altair lunar lander for a plan to return to the Moon in 2019. The Ares V was supposed to complement ...

                                               

Argument of periapsis

In astronomy, the argument of periapsis is a way of talking about the orbit of a planet, asteroid or comet. It is also known as the argument of perihelion or the argument of perifocus. It is the angle between an orbiting bodys periapsis and its a ...

                                               

Artemis 1

Artemis 1 is the uncrewed first planned flight of the Space Launch System and the second flight of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle.

                                               

Ascending node

The ascending node is one element of the orbital that must be specified to define the orientation of an elliptical orbit. The other orbital elements are inclination, and the argument of periapsis. The ascending node is usually quoted as the angul ...

                                               

Asian Dust

Asian Dust is a weather occurrence that happens each year. It affects much of East Asia during the spring. The dust comes from deserts in Mongolia, northern China, and Kazakhstan. The dust comes from surface winds and dust storms in the desert. T ...

                                               

Astraphobia

Astraphobia, also called astrapophobia, brontophobia, keraunophobia, or tonitrophobia, is a fear of thunder and lightning. It is a type of specific phobia. Both humans and animals can have this type of phobia. A person with astraphobia often feel ...

                                               

Astrobiology

Astrobiology is the study of life in outer space. The field of astrobiology looks for conditions necessary for life, like liquid water, a good temperature, or the presence of oxygen. Some possible places to find life in the solar system are Europ ...

                                               

Astronaut

An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person who goes into outer space. The Soviet Union and countries that it was friends with used the word cosmonaut. Western countries including the United States said astronaut. Astronauts are also called "taikonauts ...

                                               

Astronomical Almanac

The Astronomical Almanac is a book published each year by the United States Naval Observatory and Her Majestys Nautical Almanac Office. It includes information on astronomy such as the setting and rising times of the sun, moon, planets and stars, ...

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