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Imposter syndrome

Imposter syndrome is a bias in thinking in which the individual believes all of their accomplishments to be the result of coincidence and luck instead of actual skill. This is often combined with the fear of being revealed as a "fraud" or "impost ...

                                               

INDO

INDO stands for Intermediate Neglect of Differential Overlap. It is a semi-empirical quantum chemistry method that is a development of the complete neglect of differential overlap method developed by John Pople. Like CNDO/2 it uses zero-different ...

                                               

Inert gas

An inert gas is a gas that does not usually react chemically with other things. Examples of inert gases are argon and helium. Inert gases are made up of only one element is called a noble gas. Inert gases can also be made of more than one element ...

                                               

Infantilism

Infantilism or Paraphilic infantilism is a paraphilic, often pedophilic desire to wear diapers and be treated like an infant, or more commonly, a toddler. Such people are usually referred to as Infantilists or Adult babies. Some Infantilists are ...

                                               

Infrared spectroscopy

Infrared spectroscopy is a physical analysis method that uses infrared light. Typically, infrared spectroscopy uses a wavelength between 800nm and 1mm. The method can be used for quantitative analyses of unknown substances, or of the structural p ...

                                               

Intercalation (timekeeping)

Calendars are commonly based on the rotation of celestial bodies, such as the sun or the moon. These calendars periodically add a certain time unit, to make the calendar follow the rotation more closely, which is known as intercalation. As an exa ...

                                               

Interior point method

Interior point methods are algorithms to solve certain optimization problems. They have been used to find solutions in linear programming and quadratic programming problems. Interior point methods can be used when the solution is a convex set. Th ...

                                               

Introversion and extraversion

Introversion and extraversion is a personality dimension. It was promoted by Carl Jung in the 1920s. Individual people differ on this scale. Introverts are quiet and shy, and extraverts are loud and sociable. According to the theory, introverts g ...

                                               

Ivory

Ivory is a hard yellowsh-white material made from the tusks and teeth of animals such as elephants, hippopotamuses and walruses. Ivory is now very rare and expensive since there are restrictions on hunting elephants for ivory. There are also laws ...

                                               

J/ψ particle

J/ψ mesons are subatomic particles made of one charm quark and one charm antiquark. Mesons are a family of composite particles which are made of one quark and one antiquark. It was discovered by Burton Richter. The discovery of J/ψ mesons was hug ...

                                               

James–Lange theory

The James-Lange Theory is a hypothesis about emotions. It is one of the earliest theories of emotion. The theory is that emotions come from the physiological response to what is happening around us. It was developed independently by two 19th-cent ...

                                               

Jet (lignite)

Jet is a geological material considered to be a minor gemstone. It is originally a wood product called lignite, squeezed and heated by geological processes. The older definition of mineral did not apply to organic material. Therefore, jet was not ...

                                               

Joint (geology)

In geology, a joint is a fracture dividing rock into two sections that moved away from each other. A joint does not involve shear displacement, and forms when tensile stress breaches its threshold. In other kinds of fracturing, like in a fault, t ...

                                               

Joule

A joule is a unit in the SI system. It measures energy; usually in scientific or electrical appliances. It is named after James Prescott Joule. A joule refers to the amount of energy transferred to an object when a force of 1 newton is applied on ...

                                               

Jupiter impact

In July 1994, a comet broke up into many pieces and then crashed into Jupiter over the course of many days. The comet was called Shoemaker-Levy 9. The largest pieces left scars on the face of Jupiter. Some of the scars were larger than the Earth.

                                               

K2-18b

K2-18b, also known as EPIC 201912552 b, is an exoplanet orbiting the red dwarf K2-18, located 124 light-years away from Earth. It was discovered by the Kepler space telescope. It is estimated to be eight times bigger than the Earth. K2-18b is in ...

                                               

Kaldor-Hicks efficiency

Kaldor–Hicks efficiency, named for Nicholas Kaldor and John Hicks, also known as Kaldor–Hicks criterion, is a measure of economic efficiency. It captures some of the intuitive appeal of Pareto efficiency, but has less stringent criteria. For this ...

                                               

Kallichore (moon)

Kallichore or Jupiter XLIV, is a moon of Jupiter. It was found by a team of astronomers from the University of Hawaii led by Scott S. Sheppard, et al. in 2003. It got the designation S/2003 J 11. Kallichore is about 2 kilometres in diameter, and ...

                                               

Kari (moon)

Kari or Saturn XLV is a moon of Saturn. Its discovery was announced by Scott S. Sheppard, David C. Jewitt, Jan Kleyna, and Brian G. Marsden on June 26, 2006, from observations taken between January and April 2006. Kari is about 7 kilometres in di ...

                                               

Katabatic wind

A katabatic wind is a very strong wind which blows downhill. They can be warm winds like the "fohn" wind on the north slopes of the Alps in Europe or the Chinook which blows down the Rockies in the US. They can also be very cold winds like those ...

                                               

Keck Observatory

The W. M. Keck Observatory is a pair of two large, ground-based telescopes located at Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Sitting four km above sea level, the paired telescopes are used to examine light from distant stars in great detail. The primary mirrors of e ...

                                               

Kelp forest

Kelp forests are a type of marine ecosystem that is present around colonies of kelp; they contain rich biodiversity. Kelp can stretch 2-30 meters or more from their anchors on the sea floor to the surface. It provides a vertical infrastructure th ...

                                               

Kennelly-Heaviside layer

The Kennelly–Heaviside layer, also known as the E-region, is part of the ionosphere. It is a region which is between 90 km and 150 km from the earth’s surface. It is named after the American engineer Arthur Edwin Kennelly and the British scientis ...

                                               

Kilometres per hour

Kilometres per hour is a unit of measurement, which measures speed or velocity. The unit symbol is km/h or km h −1. By definition, an object travelling at a speed of 1 km/h in a straight line for 1 hour moves 1 kilometre. The unit is the most com ...

                                               

Koppen climate classification

The Koppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was developed by Wladimir Koppen, a German climatologist, around 1900. It is based on the concept that native vegetation is the best expression of ...

                                               

La Niña

The title of this article contains the character ñ. Where it is unavailable or not wanted, the name may be written as La Nina. La Niña is a coupled ocean atmosphere phenomenon that is counterpart to El Niño. The name means "little girl" in Spanis ...

                                               

Lalande 21185

Lalande 21185 is a red dwarf in the constellation of Ursa Major. Although relatively close by, it is only magnitude 7 in visible light and thus is too dim to see with the unaided eye. The star is visible through a small telescope. At approximatel ...

                                               

Laminar flow

Laminar flow is characterized by the smooth flow of a liquid. This tends to happen at low velocities when there are few disturbances, such as in a straight, smooth pipe. In laminar flow through a pipe, it is assumed that the velocity of the fluid ...

                                               

Larissa (moon)

Larissa or Neptune VII, is the fifth closest moon to Neptune. It is named after Larissa, a lover of Poseidon in Greek mythology. It was first found by Harold J. Reitsema, William B. Hubbard, Larry A. Lebofsky and David J. Tholen based on ground-b ...

                                               

Latex

Latex, also known as rubber, is a natural polymer obtained from the milky sap of the rubber tree, native to the tropical forests of Central and South America plant. Today, much of the natural latex comes from Southeast Asia, such as Malaysia and ...

                                               

LauncherOne

LauncherOne is a two-stage orbital launch vehicle developed and flown by Virgin Orbit. It was in development from 2007 to 2020. It is an air-launched rocket. It carries a smallsat payloads of up to 300 kg into Sun-synchronous orbit. The first suc ...

                                               

LD50

The name LD 50 is an abbreviation for "Lethal Dose, 50%" or median lethal dose. It is the amount of the substance required to kill 50% of the test population. The test was created by J.W. Trevan in 1927 but has been phased out. The U.S. Food and ...

                                               

Lead acid battery

A lead acid battery is a secondary cell, meaning that it is rechargeable. It is very common in cars and trucks. It contains plates of lead and lead oxide in a sulfuric acid solution. The lead oxide oxidizes the lead plate, making an electrical cu ...

                                               

Lead glass

Lead glass, also known as lead crystal, is a type of glass that has lead in it. Normal glass has calcium oxide in it, while lead glass changes the calcium oxide with lead oxide. It looks nice because the lead is very large and heavy and changes h ...

                                               

Least concern

Least concern is a term used by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature to talk about animals that are not endangered. They do not need to be worried about as there are a lot of them found at the time of classification.

                                               

Leda (moon)

Leda or Jupiter XIII, is a moon of Jupiter. Unlike many moons, it is not a sphere. Charles T. Kowal found it working at the Mount Palomar Observatory on September 14, 1974. He took photographs for three nights September 11 through 13. Leda is in ...

                                               

Length of day

This uses Earth time. Venus - 243 days Neptune - about 15 hours Jupiter - 9 hours Uranus - about 13 hours Mars - about 1 day, 0.6 hours Mercury - about 59 days Saturn - about 10 hours Earth - 1 day

                                               

Leptin

Leptin is a hormone made by cells in fat tissue that reduces hunger. That helps the energy balance in the body. Leptin is opposed by the actions of the hormone ghrelin, the "hunger hormone". Both hormones act on receptors in the hypothalamus. The ...

                                               

Lepton

Leptons are elementary particles with spin 1/2 that are not affected by strong nuclear force. They are a family of particles that are different from the other known family of fermions, the quarks. Electrons are a well-known example that are found ...

                                               

Libra (constellation)

Libra is a constellation of the zodiac. It lies between Virgo to the west and Scorpius to the east. It once represented the claws of Scorpius.

                                               

Light year

A light year is the distance that light travels in empty space in one year. Since the speed of light is about 300.000 km per second, then a light year is about 10 trillion kilometers. A light year is not a length of time. The light year is used i ...

                                               

Limnology

Limnology is the study of waters that are not part of the oceans or seas. This includes rivers, lakes, swamps, streams, wetlands, water under the ground, and even bodies of water made by people. Scientists who study this are called limnologists. ...

                                               

Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research

The Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research project is a project that is used for the finding and tracking of near-Earth asteroids. The project is done together by the United States Air Force, NASA, and MITs Lincoln Laboratory. LINEAR has found most ...

                                               

Link (unit)

A link, also called a Gunter’s link, was a unit of length in the imperial and US customary systems. Links were commonly used in measuring land in the English-speaking world before the twentieth century, but are never used. Link is abbreviated as ...

                                               

Lithium battery

A lithium battery is a long-life, lightweight, high-power battery used in watches. It is normally in the shape of a coin. As the name suggests, the battery has lithium in it. The lithium is oxidized, providing the power for the battery. They are ...

                                               

Lithium-ion battery

A lithium-ion battery is a lightweight, high-power battery used in computers and mobile phones. It comes in several shapes, although a flat rectangle is most common. It is lighter than the nickel cadmium battery and the nickel metal-hydride batte ...

                                               

Loge (moon)

Loge or Saturn XLVI is a moon of Saturn. Its discovery was announced by Scott S. Sheppard, David C. Jewitt, Jan Kleyna, and Brian G. Marsden on June 26, 2006, from observations taken between January and April 2006. Loge is about 6 kilometres in d ...

                                               

Low Earth orbit

A low Earth orbit is usually described as an orbit inside the area which comes from the Earth’s surface up to an altitude of 2.000 kilometres. Other definitions use other numbers such as orbital eccentricity and orbital period. Satellites in LEO ...

                                               

Lunar calendar

A lunar calendar is a calendar that is based on the phases of the Moon. Because there are slightly more than twelve lunar months in a solar year, the period of 12 lunar months is sometimes referred to as a lunar year. A common purely lunar calend ...

                                               

Lunar eclipse

A lunar eclipse is an astronomical phenomenon. It happens when the moon passes through the shadow of the Earth which can only occur during a full moon. Lunar eclipses happen about twice a year, unlike total solar eclipses that are sometimes more ...

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