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Receptacle (botany)

In biology receptacle is the swollen basal part of the flower or can also be geared as the top of the stalk or pedicel. When the stalk of the plant gets flattened and the other parts of the flower including the 4 whorls start that flattened part ...

                                               

Root

The roots of a plant is the part that is usually buried in the soil. Roots are usually always under the soil, though–sometimes roots can be above the ground. This is called an aerial root. Also, stems can sometimes be under the soil potatoes, for ...

                                               

Root hair

A root hair of a vascular plant, is a tubular outgrowth of a hair-forming cell on the epidermis of a plant root. They are lateral extensions of a single cell, and invisible to the naked eye and light microscope. The function of root hairs is to c ...

                                               

Seed

A seed is the part of a seed plant which can grow into a new plant. It is a reproductive structure which disperses, and can survive for some time. A typical seed includes three basic parts: an embryo, a supply of nutrients for the embryo, and a s ...

                                               

Stamen

The stamen is a male reproductive organ of a flower. It produces the pollen. The stamen has two parts: anther and stalk. The stalk is also called a filament. The anther contains microsporangia. Each microsporangium contains pollen mother cells. T ...

                                               

Stomata

In botany, a stoma is a tiny opening or pore. It is found on plant leaves and stems, and any other green parts of the plant. It is used for gas exchange. Stomata are mostly found on the under-surface of plant leaves. Almost all land plants have s ...

                                               

Thorns, spines and prickles

Botanists use three different words for sharp things on plants. They are thorns, spines, and prickles. Thorns are the ends of branches that are hard and sharp. Spines are hard structures with sharp ends. There are many different kinds of spines, ...

                                               

Tracheid

Tracheids are long cells in the xylem of vascular plants. They transport water and mineral salts. Tracheids are one of two types of elements in the xylem, vessel elements being the other. Tracheids do not have perforation plates; vessel elements ...

                                               

Trichome

Trichomes are structures on a plants leaves. They look like tiny hairs sticking out from the surface of the leaf. Trichomes are made of living cells, which can look very different. Some trichomes have one long cell. Other trichomes are a long cha ...

                                               

Trunk (botany)

The trunk is the main stem or "main woody axis of a tree". In the lumber trade a severed trunk is a log. In botany it means the main structural member of a tree that is directly connected to the roots and which supports the branches. The trunk is ...

                                               

Tuber

A tuber is the thickened part of an underground stem of a plant, such as the potato, with buds from which new plant shoots grow. Most tubers are formed in the ground, but sometimes they can be formed above the ground, in the aerial stems; that is ...

                                               

Variegated leaf

The easiest of these experiments is to stain the places where starch is produced starch is a more compact form of glucose. Place the leaves in boiling water for six minutes to soften the cells, and then in ethanol alcohol. When the leaves are dra ...

                                               

Vascular tissue

This is an article about vascular tissue in plants. For transport in animals, see Circulatory system. Vascular tissue is a complex tissue found in vascular plants. Complex means that it is composed of more than one cell type. The primary componen ...

                                               

Xylem

Xylem is a tissue in vascular plants. Its cells have thick, hard walls. Xylem tissue dies soon after it is formed and is the wood in the middle of a tree. The dead cells are like pipes, hollow and rigid. Xylem is one of two tissues in the plant w ...

                                               

Plant hormone

Plant hormones are chemicals that regulate plant growth. In the UK they are called plant growth substances. The best known plant hormone is auxin. Plant hormones are signal molecules produced within the plant. They occur in extremely low concentr ...

                                               

Plant physiology

Plant physiology is the part of botany which studies how plants work. That is the physiology of plants. Using a variety of methods, botanists study how plants reproduce, grow, get nutrients, photosynthesise, get water, and so on. The main topics ...

                                               

Adventitious bud

An adventitious bud is a bud which grows in an usual place, whether found on stems or roots. They are one way plants can reproduce asexually. They connect with phloem and xylem to get nourishment. Some plants normally develop adventitious buds on ...

                                               

Anthocyanin

In flowers, bright-reds and purples attract pollinators. In fruits, the colourful skins also attract the attention of animals, which may eat the fruits and disperse the seeds. In photosynthetic tissues such as leaves and sometimes stems, anthocya ...

                                               

Auxin

Auxins are a class of plant hormones with some morphogen-like characteristics. Auxins have a main role in coordination of many growth and behavioral processes in the plants life cycle. they are essential for plant body development. Auxins and the ...

                                               

Blight

Blight refers to way plants wither when infected. It is a rapid and complete chlorosis, browning, then death of plant tissues such as leaves, branches, twigs, or flowers. Various diseases which cause the symptom are known as blights. Several nota ...

                                               

Calvin cycle

The Calvin cycle is the set of chemical reactions that take place in chloroplasts during photosynthesis. The cycle is light-independent because it takes place after the energy has been captured from sunlight. The Calvin cycle is named after Melvi ...

                                               

Chlorella

Chlorella is a genus of single-cell green algae. It is in the division Chlorophyta. It is microscopic in size and round in shape. Chlorella has in its body two green color substances: "chlorophyll-a" and "chlorophyll b." It uses photosynthesis, s ...

                                               

Cytoplasmic streaming

Cytoplasmic streaming is where there is flow inside the cytoplasm. It is sometimes called protoplasmic streaming or cyclosis. Streaming is often seen in large plant and animal cells. Cytoplasm moves inside the cells. The flow is driven by forces ...

                                               

Endosperm

Endosperm is a food reserve tissue inside the seeds of most flowering plants. It surrounds the embryo and provides nutrition in the form of starch. It may also contain oils and protein. The endosperm of cereal plants is an important source of nut ...

                                               

Hyperaccumulator

A hyperaccumulator is a plant that can grow in soils with very high concentrations of metals. Featured by the BBC is a tree on the island of New Caledonia, Pycnandra acuminata, which grows on soil rich in nickel. Many different plants do this in ...

                                               

Lenticel

A lenticel is porous tissue in the bark of trees. Its cells make large intercellular spaces in the periderm of the bark. They are found in the woody stems and roots of dicotyledonous flowering plants. Lenticels are also found in other woody plant ...

                                               

Photorespiration

Photorespiration, or "photo-respiration", is a process in plant metabolism. A sugar has oxygen added to it by the enzyme, instead of carbon dioxide during normal photosynthesis. This process reduces efficiency of photosynthesis. Photorespiration ...

                                               

Photosystem II

Photosystem II is a large protein complex. It is the first protein complex in the light-dependent reactions of oxygenic photosynthesis. The complex is in the thylakoid membrane of plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. In the photosystem, enzymes capt ...

                                               

Phototropism

Phototropism is growth in the direction of light. Phototropism is common in plants, but can also occur in other organisms such as fungi. The cells on the plant that are farthest from the light have a plant growth hormone called auxin, which cause ...

                                               

Plant reproduction

Plant reproduction is the production of new plants. It can be done by sexual or asexual reproduction. Sexual reproduction results in offspring with genetics from both parents. Asexual reproduction produces new individuals genetically identical to ...

                                               

Plant sap

Plant sap, or just sap, is fluid transported in xylem tubes or phloem cells of a plant. Xylem cells transport water and inorganic nutrients through the plant; phloem cells transport sugary fluids and other biological molecules. Latex or resin is ...

                                               

Protoplast

Protoplast in modern biology, is what is left of a cell when the cell wall is dissolved. That leaves the cells nucleus and the surrounding protoplasmic materials. Definition: a protoplast is a plant, bacterial or fungal cell that had its cell wal ...

                                               

Stromule

A stromule is a microscopic structure found in plant cells. Stromules are highly dynamic structures extending from the surface of all plastids, including chloroplasts. Protrusions from and interconnections between plastids were seen in 1888 and 1 ...

                                               

Translocation (botany)

Translocation in vascular plants means the movement of organic molecules and some mineral ions. Movement of water from the soil to the leaves occurs in xylem vessels as the result of Transpiration. Transpiration, the evaporation of water from lea ...

                                               

Transpiration

Transpiration is the evaporation of water from plants, especially leaves. It is a type of translocation and part of the water cycle. The amount of water lost by a plant depends on its size, the light intensity, temperature, humidity, wind speed, ...

                                               

Vegetative reproduction

Vegetative reproduction is a kind of asexual reproduction. Many plants do it. By vegetative reproduction plants can cover the ground quickly: ground taken by one plant is difficult for other plants to take. This occurs naturally, and can also be ...

                                               

Aquatic plant

An aquatic plant is a plant that has adapted to live in the water. This can be either freshwater, such as in rivers and lakes, saltwater as in the sea, or brackish water, as in the estuary of a river. Some aquatic plants are partly submerged. Oth ...

                                               

Duckweed

Duckweed, water lens, or bayroot, are freshwater aquatic plants. They float in still or slow-moving fresh water and wetlands. There are five genera, with a total of 33 to 38 species. These plants are very simple: They lack an obvious stem or leav ...

                                               

Hydrilla

Hydrilla is a genus of aquatic plant. It contains only one species Hydrilla verticillata. Some botanists divide it into different species. It is a submersed plant. It can grow to the surface and form dense mats. It can form in all types of water ...

                                               

Nelumbo

Nelumbo is a genus of water plants which are also known as lotus. Lotus flowers are large – up to 20 cm across – and they smell sweet. The Sacred lotus of Asia has pink flowers. The American lotus has yellow flowers. In India the lotus is conside ...

                                               

Aglaophyton

Aglaophyton is a genus of early Devonian fossil land plants. Its fossils have been found in the Rhynie chert. Only the sporophyte generation have been found as fossils. Only one species has been found, Aglaophyton major.

                                               

Archaefructus

Archaefructus is an extinct genus of herbaceous aquatic seed plants. Its fossils come from the Yixian Formation in northeastern China, about 125 million years ago in the early Cretaceous. Archaefructus is the earliest known genus of flowering pla ...

                                               

Glossopteris

Glossopteris is the largest and best-known genus of the extinct seed ferns. They were typical plants of the coal forests or coal swamps which lasted from the Pennsylvanian to the end of the Permian. The coal swamps were world-wide because, for th ...

                                               

Horneophyton

Horneophyton is a genus of early Devonian fossil land plants. Its fossils are very common in the Rhynie chert. Both the sporophyte and a female gametophyte have been found as fossils. The sporophyte was about 20 cm tall, and the gametophyte was a ...

                                               

Lepidodendron

Lepidodendron is an extinct genus of primitive plant. They were the first large land plants, and a major part of the coal forest tropical flora. They were huge, over 30 metres 100 feet, and the trunks were often over 1 m 3.3 ft in diameter. Somet ...

                                               

Seed fern

The term seed ferns are several distinct groups of extinct seed plants. The oldest fossil evidence of plants of this type is from Upper Devonian strata, and they flourished particularly during the Carboniferous and Permian periods. Pteridosperms ...

                                               

Flower

A flower is the reproductive part of flowering plants. A flower is a special part of the plant. Flowers are also called the bloom or blossom of a plant. Flowers have petals. Inside the part of the flower that has petals are the parts which produc ...

                                               

Flowering plant sexuality

Terms for the sexuality of individual flowers: Perfect flowers have both male androecium and female gynoecium reproductive structures, including stamens and an ovary. Flowers that contain both androecium and gynoecium are called hermaphroditic. E ...

                                               

Bellis perennis

Bellis perennis is a very common European species of daisy, of the Asteraceae family, often considered the model type for the name "daisy". Many related plants also share the name "daisy", so to distinguish this species from other daisies it is s ...

                                               

Bluebell wood

A bluebell wood is a woodland that in springtime has a carpet of flowering bluebells underneath a newly forming leaf canopy. The thicker the summer canopy, the more the ground-cover is suppressed. This encourages a dense carpet of bluebells, whos ...

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