## Petrus Plancius

Petrus Plancius was a Flemish astronomer, cartographer and clergyman. He was born as Pieter Platevoet in Dranouter, now in Heuvelland, West Flanders. He studied theology in Germany and England. At the age of 24 he became a minister in the Dutch R ...

## Geoid

The geoid is a shape like the surface of the Earth. It is a 3-D geometrical shape like an orange. Shapes of this kind are called oblate spheroids, which is a kind of ellipsoid. The geoid, however, is a very special kind of oblate spheroid. It is ...

## Meridian arc

In geodesy, a meridian arc is the distance between two points with the same longitude. In geometry it is an arc: a segment of a curve. The length of an imaginary rope laid over the globe would be that distance. Two or more such measurements at di ...

## Oblate spheroid

An oblate spheroid is a famous shape. It is the shape of the Earth and some other planets. It is like a sphere squashed from the top so the circumference around the poles is less than the circumference around the equator. Shapes of this type are ...

## Struve Geodetic Arc

The Struve Geodetic Arc is a chain of survey triangulations that go from Hammerfest in Norway to the Black Sea. They go through ten countries and over 2.820 km. It made the first accurate measurement of a meridian arc. The chain was made and used ...

## U.S. National Geodetic Survey

National Geodetic Survey, formerly called the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, is a United States federal agency that defines and manages a national coordinate system. It measures the land and then draws maps. It also measures magnetic fields and ...

## International Date Line

The International Date Line, also known as just the Date Line, is an imaginary line on the surface of the Earth, going from north to south in the Pacific Ocean. The date becomes one day later as one travels across it in western direction, and one ...

## Equirectangular projection

The equirectangular projection is a simple map view made about 100 AD. The projection maps Longitude and Latitude to even straight lines. Because the map is stretched out, it can not be used in navigation. Its main use is to show large map areas.

## Mercator projection

The Mercator projection is a cylindrical map projection which is widely used in cartography today. It was developed by Gerardus Mercator in 1569. It is not a physical projection, and cannot be constructed using geometric tools. On a small scale, ...

## Stereographic projection

In geometry, a stereographic projection is a function that maps the points of a sphere onto a plane. The projection is defined on the entire sphere, except for one point, called the projection point. Intuitively, the stereographic projection is a ...

## United States Geological Survey

The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The agency is a part of the United States Department of the Interior. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural res ...

## Belanglo State Forest

Belanglo State Forest is a planted forest in the Australian state of New South Wales covering an area of about 3.500 hectares. It is south of Berrima in the Southern Highlands, five kilometres west of the Hume Highway between Sydney and Canberra. ...

## Daintree Rainforest

The Daintree Rainforest is a tropical rainforest in Queensland, Australia. At around 1200 square kilometres the Daintree is the largest continuous area of tropical rainforest on the Australian mainland.It is named after Richard Daintree, an Austr ...

## Enfield State Park

The Enfield State Park, also known as the Enfield State Forest, is a large forest reserve south of Ballarat, Victoria, Australia. It covers an area of about 4.600 hectares. The Enfield State Park was once the site for gold mining, and there are m ...

## Gondwana Rainforests

The Gondwana Rainforests of Australia, formerly known as the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves, are the most extensive area of subtropical rainforest in the world. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The area includes 50 separate reserves cover ...

## Mount Cole State Forest

The Mount Cole State Forest is in western Victoria, Australia, near the town of Beaufort. The forest is around Mount Cole, which formed 390 million years ago. The Indigenous Australians, the Beeripmo balug people, called it Bereep-bereep, which m ...

## Numinbah Nature Reserve

Numinbah Nature Reserve is part of the Mount Warning caldera, in the Border ranges of north eastern New South Wales in Australia. Mount Warning is a volcano that erupted more than 23 million years ago. The 892 hectare Reserve is part of the Shiel ...

## Pilliga forest

The State Forests of The Pilliga, also called the Pilliga Scrub, covers an area of 3000 km 2 in north-central New South Wales, Australia. It is the largest area of semi-arid woodland in the state. The forest is near the towns of Baradine and Narr ...

## Wombat State Forest

The Wombat State Forest, also called the Bullarook Forest, is 50 kilometres west of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, between Woodend and Daylesford, at the Great Dividing Range. The forest covers an area of about 70.000 hectares. The Bullarook Wom ...

## Royal forest

A royal forest is an area of land with various meanings, but basically it is woodland once owned by monarchs. In Anglo-Saxon England, the kings were great huntsmen but they never set aside areas forbidden to other users. Historians find no eviden ...

## Rainforest

A rainforest is a forest that receives heavy rainfall. The most notable rainforests are in the tropics or subtropics, mostly in the Intertropical Convergence Zone. The biggest rainforest is the Amazon rainforest, which is mostly in Brazil. Forest ...

## 2020 Brazil wildfires

The 2020 Brazil wildfires are a group of wildfires that began burning Brazils rainforests in June 2020 and have continued into September 2020. More than 12% of all the plants in the Pantanal rainforest had burned by August 2020. In June 2020, Bra ...

## Amazon rainforest

The Amazon rainforest is the largest forest. It grows in the tropical basin of the Amazon River. The forest lies in a basin drained largely by the Amazon River, with 1100 tributaries. It is a moist broadleaf forest which covers seven million squa ...

## Peat swamp forest

Peat swamp forests are forest wetlands in tropical and subtropical areas. They have poor drainage. Waterlogged soil prevents dead leaves and wood from decomposing fully. Over time, this creates a thick layer of acidic peat. They are made up of tr ...

## Country code top-level domain

A country code top-level domain is an Internet top-level domain generally used or reserved for a country.

## ISO 3166-1 alpha-3

ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 codes are three-letter country codes in the ISO 3166-1 standard to represent countries and dependent territories. They are published by the International Organization for Standardization as part of its ISO 3166 standard. They w ...

## ISO 3166-2: AZ

ISO 3166-2:AZ is the entry for Azerbaijan in ISO 3166-2, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization, which defines codes for the names of the principal subdivisions of all countries coded in ISO ...

## ISO 3166-2

ISO 3166-2 is part of the ISO 3166 standard. It was made by the International Organization for Standardization. For each country listed in ISO 3166-1, ISO 3166-2 defines its provinces with two or three letter codes, or numbers.

## ISO 3166-2: PA

ISO 3166-2:PA is the entry for Panama in ISO 3166-2, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization, which defines codes for the names of the principal subdivisions of all countries that are in ISO 3 ...

## ISO 3166-2: PY

ISO 3166-2:PY is the entry for Paraguay in ISO 3166-2, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization, which defines codes for the names of the principal subdivisions of all countries that are in ISO ...

## ISO 3166-2: US

ISO 3166-2:US is the part for the United States in ISO 3166-2. This is part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization. They decide the codes for the names of the subdivisions of all countries coded i ...

## Zonia Baber

Mary Arizona "Zonia" Baber was an American geographer and geologist. She is best known for forming a way for teaching geography. Baber first worked as a teacher of geography and as a principal in a private school. She began working at the Univers ...

## Franz Boas

Franz Boas was a German born American anthropologist. He is considered by many to have been the Father of American Anthropology. While today archaeology, cultural anthropology, linguistics, and Biological anthropology are often considered somewha ...

## David H. Burr

David H. Burr was an American map maker and worked for the Surveyor General of the United States. He was also Surveyor General of Utah. He stopped being a lawyer and became a surveyor. He worked for the state of New York. He made an atlas in 1829 ...

## Arnold Henry Guyot

Guyot was born on September 28, 1807 at Boudevilliers, near Neuchatel, Switzerland. He schooled at the college of Neuchatel, Chaux-de-Fonds. In 1825, he traveled to Germany and lived in Karlsruhe where he met Louis Agassiz. From Karlsruhe he move ...

## Waldo R. Tobler

Waldo Rudolph Tobler was an American geographer and cartographer. He was born in Portland, Oregon. Toblers idea that "Everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things" is called as the "first law of g ...

## Francis Galton

Sir Francis Galton FRS, half-cousin of Charles Darwin, was an English scientist. His main field of work was human biology and inheritance of mental characteristics. Galton was a polymath: an anthropologist, a eugenicist, a tropical explorer, geog ...

## Eratosthenes

Eratosthenes of Cyrene was a 3rd century BC Greek mathematician, geographer and astronomer. He was head of the Library of Alexandria from 240 BC until his death: this was the most important library of the ancient world. According to the Suda, his ...

## Pausanias (geographer)

Pausanias was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. He is famous for his Description of Greece, a lengthy work that describes ancient Greece from firsthand ...

## Ptolemy

Claudius Ptolemy was a Greek who probably lived and worked in Alexandria, Egypt. He is famous for his work on astronomy and geography. Very little is known about his personal life. He was an astronomer, mathematician, and geographer. He described ...

## Strabo

Strabo was born in a rich family from Pontus which had become part of the Roman Empire a short time before. His mother was Georgian. He studied under several geographers and philosophers. Later he made long travels to Egypt and Kush, among others ...

## Dunmore East

Dunmore East is a popular tourist and fishing village in County Waterford, Ireland. It lies within the barony of Gaultier:

## Sevastopol Naval Base

The base is located in theadministrative territory of Sevastopol. It has several places for ships to dock which includes: Yuzhnaya Russian: Южная бухта ; Ukrainian: Південна бухта Severnaya Russian: Северная бухта ; Ukrainian: Північна бухта Kara ...

## Antarctic Treaty System

The Antarctic Treaty System is a set of agreements about the continent of Antarctica. It was signed in 1959 and took effect in 1961. So far, it has been signed by 46-48 countries. The ATS is used for governing the continent. The main idea of the ...

## Arctic

The Arctic is the area around the Earths North Pole. The Arctic includes parts of Russia, Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Lapland and Svalbard as well as the Arctic Ocean. It is an ocean, mostly covered with ice. Most scientists call the area north of ...

## Beringia

The Bering land bridge joined present-day Alaska and eastern Siberia at times during the Pleistocene ice ages. Its greatest extension was about 1.000 miles 1.600 km north to south. It was not glaciated because snowfall was extremely light as the ...

## Inuit

The Inuit are one of many groups of First Nations who live in very cold places of northern Canada, Greenland, the Arctic, and Alaska. They are sometimes called Eskimos, a word which likely comes from the Algonquin language and may mean "eater of ...

## Sami people

The Sami people, also spelled as Saami are an ethnic group of people living in Sapmi, an area in the far north of Europe. It is a part of Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia. There are 80.000 to 135.000 Sami people in the world. The Sami are somet ...

## Sami people of Norway

The Sami ethnic group in Norway, or Sami people in Norway, are part of an ethnic group that also lives in Sweden, Finland, and Russia. In Norway, the core-area of the Sami, is in 4 municipalities in Finnmark county and 1 municipality in Troms cou ...

## Ziegler Polar Expedition

The Ziegler polar expedition of 1903–1905 was a failed attempt to reach the North Pole. The party was stranded north of the Arctic Circle for two years before being rescued. All but one of its members survived. The expedition was paid for by Will ...