ⓘ Organ system
In biology, an organ system is a group of organs that work together to perform one or more functions. Each does a particular job in the body, and is made up of certain tissues.
1. Organs and their tissue systems
These specific systems are widely studied in anatomy. They are present in many types of animals.
- Endocrine system: communication within the body using hormones made by endocrine glands such as the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, pineal gland, thyroid, parathyroid and adrenal glands.
- Integumentary system: skin, hair, fat, and nails.
- Digestive system: digestion and processing food with salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, intestines, rectum and anus.
- Circulatory system: pumping and channeling blood to and from the body and lungs with heart, blood and blood vessels.
- Lymphatic system: the transfer of lymph between tissues and the blood stream; includes the lymph and the nodes and vessels. The system includes the functions of immune responses and the development of antibodies.
- Urinary system: kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra involved in fluid balance, electrolyte balance and excretion of urine.
- Reproductive system: the sex organs, such as ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands, testes, vas deferens, seminal vesicles and prostate
- Respiratory system: the organs used for breathing, the pharynx, larynx, bronchi, lungs and diaphragm.
- Immune system: protects the organism from foreign bodies
- Skeletal system: structural support and protection with bones, cartilage, ligaments and tendons.
- Muscular system: allows for manipulation of the environment, provides locomotion, maintains posture, and produces heat. Includes skeletal muscles, smooth muscles and cardiac muscle.
- Nervous system: collecting, transferring and processing information with brain, spinal cord and peripheral nervous system.