Back

ⓘ Francis Crick. Francis Harry Compton Crick OM FRS was a British physicist, biologist and humanist. He is one of those who worked out the structure of DNA. Using ..




Francis Crick
                                     

ⓘ Francis Crick

Francis Harry Compton Crick OM FRS was a British physicist, biologist and humanist.

He is one of those who worked out the structure of DNA. Using X-ray crystallography results from Maurice Wilkins biophysics team at Kings College London, Crick and James Watson discovered that DNA has what is called a "double helix structure".

This means that DNA is made of two chains wound round each other to make a spiral. Only one of the chains carries information, but the two chains together makes the molecule more stable. DNA is the basis of heredity for almost all forms of life today.

Crick, Watson and Wilkins won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 1962. Their work sparked a huge amount of research in molecular and cell biology and, as a result, many subsequent Nobel awards have been made.

                                     

1.1. Later work Molecular biology

During the mid-to-late 1950s Crick helped sort out the way proteins are synthesized. In 1958, Cricks listed all the key features of the protein synthesis process:

  • adaptor molecules "they might contain nucleotides" to match short sequences of nucleotides in the RNA messenger molecules to specific amino acids
  • genetic information stored in the sequence of DNA molecules
  • a messenger RNA molecule to carry the instructions for making one protein to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm
  • ribonucleic-protein complexes that catalyse the assembly of amino acids into proteins according to the messenger RNA

The adaptor molecules were eventually shown to be tRNAs and the catalytic "ribonucleic-protein complexes" became known as ribosomes. An important step was later realization in 1960 that the messenger RNA was not the same as the ribosomal RNA.

The next fundamental question was the exact nature of the genetic code. In his 1958 article, Crick speculated, as had others, that a triplet of nucleotides could code for an amino acid. Crick also used the term "central dogma" to summarize an idea that implies that genetic information flow between macro molecules would be essentially one-way:

DNA → RNA → Protein

In his thinking about the processes linking DNA genes to proteins, Crick made clear the distinction between the materials involved, the energy required, and the information flow. Crick was focused on this third component information and it became the organizing principle of what became known as molecular biology.

                                     

1.2. Later work Neurophysiology

In the final phase of his career, Crick and Christof Koch published a series of articles on consciousness 1990–2005.

Crick decided to focus his work on how the brain generates visual awareness within a few hundred milliseconds of viewing a scene. Cricks book The Astonishing Hypothesis made the argument that neuroscience now had the tools required to begin a scientific study of how brains produce conscious experiences.

                                     

1.3. Later work The Francis Crick Institute

The Francis Crick Institute is a £660.000.000 biomedical research centre in London. The Francis Crick Institute is a partnership between Cancer Research UK, Imperial College London, Kings College London, the Medical Research Council, University College London UCL and the Wellcome Trust. It is the largest centre for biomedical research and innovation in Europe.

The Institute is next to St Pancras station on the Euston Road. It has an annual budget of over £100 million. The building’s vaulted roof is arranged into two shells and is fitted with solar panels. A third of the building is below ground to reduce its visible mass.

                                     
  • The Francis Crick Institute is a biomedical research centre in London which opened in 2016. It is a partnership between Cancer Research UK, Imperial College
  • Molecular Biology Peter Ratcliffe The Francis Crick Institute The Francis Crick Institute. Retrieved 2018 - 01 - 03. Crick Website The Nobel Prize in Physiology
  • as one of the discoverers of the structure of DNA with Francis Crick in 1953. Watson, Crick and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in
  • College London on the structure of DNA. In recognition of this work, he, Francis Crick and James Watson were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or
  • 1941 FRS FMedSci is a British virologist and Emeritus scientist at the Francis Crick Institute in London. From 1987 to 2006 he was Director of the National
  • shared with John Kendrew Francis Crick 1962 shared with Maurice Wilkins and Jim Watson Jim Watson 1962 shared with Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins Aaron
  • and Francis Crick were biologists. They were also studying the shape of DNA. They were building 3D examples of the helix shape. Watson and Crick used
  • The central dogma of molecular biology is a phrase by Francis Crick who proposed the double helix structure of DNA. It means that information passes
  • army from World War II in the ceilings and walls. On February 28, 1953 Francis Crick and James Watson discovered the secret of life in The Eagle: they
  • the discovery of the structure of DNA was made by James D. Watson and Francis Crick in February 1953. He was elected an FRS in 1921. He was knighted by
  • Chargaff s rules summarises this finding. In 1953, James D. Watson and Francis Crick suggested what is now accepted as the first correct double - helix model
  • Alzheimer Mayim Bialik Daniel Bovet Arvid Carlsson Alexander Cools Francis Crick Wim Crusio John Eccles neurophysiologist Howard Eichenbaum Joseph
  • around each other. This double helix structure was first described by Francis Crick and James D. Watson in 1953. This DNA is different from the DNA in bacteria