ⓘ Biomes ..



In ecology, a biome is a major regional group of distinctive plant and animal communities best adapted to the regions physical natural environment, latitude, elevation, and terrain. A biome is made up of ecoregions or settlements at stable steady state and all associated transitional, disturbed, or degraded, vegetation, fauna and soils, but can often be identified by the climax vegetation type. The biodiversity characteristic of each biome, especially the diversity of fauna and subdominant plant forms, is a function of abiotic factors and the biomass productivity of the dominant vegetation ...


Cold seep

A cold seep is an area of the ocean floor where hydrogen sulfide, methane and other hydrocarbon-rich liquids leak out of the Earths crust, often in the form of a brine pool. Cold seeps form a biome supporting several native species. Cold seeps change the shape of the ocean floor over time, where reactions between methane and seawater create carbonate rock formations and reefs. These reactions may change when bacteria are present.


Continental shelf

A continental shelf is the part of the continent that is under water. The shelf was part of the land during the ice ages in the glacial periods, but under water in the interglacial periods. We are at present in an interglacial period. Every continent is in the sea, like an island. Most of the island is above the water line, and we see it as a continent. Some of it though, is below the water line. Beyond the continental shelf, the bottom goes down to much greater depths. The continental shelf is a shallow ocean. It varies in depth, up to 140 metres deep. It varies greatly in its width. At t ...


Coral reef

A coral reef is a large underwater structure made of dead and living corals. In most healthy reefs, stony corals are predominant. They are built from colonial polyps from the phylum Cnidaria which secrete an exoskeleton of calcium carbonate. The reefs are formed in tropical marine areas and between the tropics. The reef acts as the home of many tropical fish and other animals. Coral reefs systems are a major tourism attraction because of their beauty and color of the corals and their many associated animals. People look at them while snorkeling and diving. One example of a coral reef is in ...



A grassland is a biome, an area of land that mostly has grasses. There are wild grasses, and there may be some trees. Several parts of the world have grasslands. Grasslands are found in Africa, North America, Central Asia, South America, and near the coasts of Australia. The largest grasslands are in East Africa. Grasslands with a few scattered trees are called savannas. Others are called prairies or steppes.


Pelagic zone

The pelagic zone is the open sea or ocean that is not near the coast. The name comes from the Greek πέλαγος, which might be translated as "open sea". To make this clear, seas around continents have continental crust beneath them. They are shallow. Seas away from continents can be very deep, and do not have continental shelves beneath them.



Benthos: the flora and fauna found at the bottom of the sea or lake. Covers quite a wide range of uses, for instance, animals in rock pools are benthic, though only a few inches below the surface. In the ocean, used to contrast organisms in the sea depths, with plankton, living in the upper pelagic zone. The problem is addressed by extending the pelagic zone down below the light to the bathypelagic and abyssopelagic zones. These terms, however, are mostly not used.