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ⓘ Crotalinae. The Crotalinae, also known as the pit vipers or crotaline snakes, are a subfamily of venomous vipers found in Asia and the Americas. There are 18 ge ..




Crotalinae
                                     

ⓘ Crotalinae

The Crotalinae, also known as the "pit vipers" or "crotaline snakes", are a subfamily of venomous vipers found in Asia and the Americas.

There are 18 genera and 151 species which are currently found: 7 genera and 54 species in the Old World, and 11 genera and 97 species in the New World. They are the only known vipers found in the Americas. Some of the snakes which belong in this group are the rattlesnakes, lanceheads and Asian pitvipers.

                                     

1. Description

Pit vipers range in size from the hump-nosed viper, Hypnale hypnale, which grows to the length of around 30–45 centimetres 12–18 in, to the South American bushmaster, Lachesis muta, which is known to grow to a length of 3.65 metres 12.0 ft, making it the longest venomous snake in the New World. Some pit vipers are arboreal meaning they live in trees, some are terrestrial meaning they live on the ground, and one species is even semi-aquatic: the cottonmouth, Agkistrodon piscivorus.

                                     

2. Where they live

This subfamily of snakes is found from eastern Europe, eastward through Asia to Japan, Taiwan, Indonesia, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. In the Americas, they are found from southern Canada, southward to Central America to southern South America. Members of this group are found in deserts and rainforests.

                                     

3. Reproduction

Pit vipers are mainly viviparous, meaning the females give live birth. It is believed that all oviparous Pit vipers guard their eggs. Many young pit vipers have brightly coloured tails which is different to the rest of their body.

                                     

4. Genera

  • Palm-pitvipers, Bothriechis
  • Bushmasters, Lachesis
  • Mexican horned pitvipers, Ophryacus
  • Asian moccasins, Gloydius
  • Hump-nosed pit vipers, Hypnale
  • Jumping pitvipers, Atropoides
  • Ground rattlesnakes, Sistrurus
  • Lanceheads, Bothrops
  • Mountain pit vipers, Ovophis
  • Rattlesnakes, Crotalus
  • Forest-pitvipers, Bothriopsis
  • Moccasins, Agkistrodon
  • Montane pitvipers, Cerrophidion
  • Hundred-pace pitviper, Deinagkistrodon
  • Temple vipers, Tropidolaemus
  • Malayan pitviper, Calloselasma
  • Asian lanceheads, Trimeresurus
  • Hognose pit vipers, Porthidium
                                     
  • northern Vietnam. Causinae Cope, 1859 1 6 Night adders Subsaharan Africa Crotalinae Oppel, 1811 18 151 Pit vipers In the Old World from eastern Europe eastward
  • Chordata Class: Reptilia Order: Squamata Suborder: Serpentes Family: Viperidae Subfamily: Crotalinae Genera Crotalus Linnaeus, 1758 Sistrurus Garman, 1883
  • Animalia Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Vertebrata Class: Reptilia Order: Squamata Suborder: Serpentes Family: Viperidae Subfamily: Crotalinae Genus: Crotalus
  • Serpentes Clade: Caenophidia Clade: Colubroides Family: Viperidae Subfamily: Crotalinae Genus: Crotalus Species: C. atrox Binomial name Crotalus atrox Baird &
  • Animalia Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Vertebrata Class: Reptilia Order: Squamata Suborder: Serpentes Family: Viperidae Subfamily: Crotalinae Genus: Lachesis
  • Animalia Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Vertebrata Class: Reptilia Order: Squamata Suborder: Serpentes Family: Viperidae Subfamily: Crotalinae Genus: Atropoides
  • Subphylum: Vertebrata Class: Reptilia Order: Squamata Suborder: Serpentes Family: Viperidae Subfamily: Crotalinae Genus: Crotalus Species: C. catalinensis
  • Reptilia Order: Squamata Suborder: Serpentes Family: Viperidae Subfamily: Crotalinae Genus: Trimeresurus Species: T. trigonocephalus Binomial name Trimeresurus