Back

ⓘ Arctic Council. The Arctic Council is a high-level forum between governments. It addresses issues faced by the Arctic governments and the indigenous people of t ..




Arctic Council
                                     

ⓘ Arctic Council

The Arctic Council is a high-level forum between governments. It addresses issues faced by the Arctic governments and the indigenous people of the Arctic. The Council is formed of eight countries: Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and the United States. All of these countries have sovereignty over the lands within the Arctic Circle. There are also some observer states.

The Council was formed in 1996 by the Ottawa Declaration. It is designed to encourage cooperation, coordination, and interaction among the Arctic states. The Council meets every six months for a Senior Arctic Officials SAO meeting. Senior Arctic Officials are representatives of the member states. Every two years a Ministerial Meeting is held. A "Declaration" is produced at this meeting. It sums up the past work of the Council and its future plans.

                                     

1. Membership

The Council is made up of member and observer states, as well as Indigenous "permanent participants" and observer organizations.

Member states

To be a member, a state must have territory in the Arctic. The member states are:

  • Iceland
  • Sweden
  • Denmark; representing Greenland
  • Finland
  • United States
  • Russia
  • Canada
  • Norway

Observer states

Observer status is open to non-Arctic states. They must be approved by the Council at the Ministerial Meetings. Observers have no voting rights in the Council. Currently, thirteen non-Arctic states have observer status.

Current observer states are 2019:

  • Netherlands, 1998
  • China, 2013
  • Singapore, 2013
  • Poland, 1998
  • India, 2013
  • South Korea, 2013
  • Germany, 1998
  • Japan, 2013
  • Italy, 2013
  • Spain, 2006
  • United Kingdom, 1998
  • France, 2000
  • Switzerland, 2017
                                     
  • Institution Arctic Council The Northern Forum Arctic Environmental Atlas Archived 2006 - 01 - 06 at the Wayback Machine Interactive map NOAA Arctic Theme Page
  • Northern Norway and approximately half of Iceland is arctic although Iceland lies below the Arctic Circle except for one small island. This short article
  • unlike the Arctic seas, the Norwegian Sea is ice - free throughout the year. The Norwegian Sea is a transition zone between boreal and Arctic conditions
  • animals include the Labrador Wolf, caribou, moose, black bear, red fox, arctic fox, wolverine, snowshoe hare, grouse, osprey, raven, ducks, geese, partridge
  • years for members of the Olympic Council of Asia OCA which features winter events. For the 2017 Games, the Olympic Council of Asia invited athletes from
  • are rare in the southern part of the country. Occasionally, air from the Arctic Circle comes down the eastern side of the country and the temperature can
  • usually moderate prevailing winds from the Atlantic may be interrupted by Arctic air from the north - east or hot air from the Sahara. The United Kingdom is
  • the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west and the Arctic Ocean to the north. Canada s area is 9.98 million square kilometres 3.85 million
  • Bottom Trawling and Scallop Dredging in the Arctic ed. Elena Guijarro Garcia Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers, 2007 p. 257 Bush Administration
  • Barents Sea. Eds. P.Saundry & C.Cleveland. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment. Washington DC This short article about
  • military sportspeople, organized by the International Military Sports Council CISM The Games have been held since 1995, although championships for